Diageo plc – Annual report – 30 June 2019
Industry: food and drink
18. Contingent liabilities and legal proceedings (extract)
The international tax environment has received increased attention and seen rapid change over recent years, both at a US and European level, and by international bodies such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Against this backdrop, Diageo has been monitoring developments and continues to engage transparently with the tax authorities in the countries where Diageo operates to ensure that the group manages its arrangements on a sustainable basis.
In April 2019, the European Commission issued its decision in a state aid investigation into the Group Financing Exemption in the UK controlled foreign company rules. The European Commission found that part of the Group Financing Exemption constitutes state aid. The Group Financing Exemption was introduced in legislation by the UK government in 2013. In common with other UK-based international companies whose arrangements are in line with current UK CFC legislation Diageo may be affected by the ultimate outcome of this investigation. In June 2019 the UK government and other UK-based international companies, including Diageo, appealed to the General Court of the European Union against the decision. In the meantime, the UK Government is required to commence collection proceedings and therefore it is expected that Diageo will have to make a payment in the year ending 30 June 2020 in respect of this case. At present it is not possible to determine the amount that the UK government will seek to collect. If the decision of the European Commission is upheld, Diageo calculates its maximum potential liability to be approximately £275 million. Based on its current assessment, Diageo believes that no provision is required in respect of this issue.
In July 2019 Diageo reached agreement with the French tax authorities over the deductibility of certain interest costs. See note 7 (b) (i) for further information.
The group operates in a large number of markets with complex tax and legislative regimes that are open to subjective interpretation. As assessing an accurate value of contingent liabilities in these markets requires a high level of judgement, contingent liabilities are disclosed on the basis of the current known possible exposure from tax assessment values.
Diageo has reviewed its disclosures in relation to Brazil and India, where Diageo has a large number of ongoing tax cases. While these cases are not individually significant, the current assessment of the aggregate possible exposures is up to approximately £313 million for Brazil and up to approximately £180 million for India. The group believes that the likelihood that the tax authorities will ultimately prevail is lower than probable but higher than remote. Due to the fiscal environment in Brazil and in India the possibility of further tax assessments related to the same matters cannot be ruled out. Based on its current assessment, Diageo believes that no provision is required in respect of these issues.
In addition to the risks highlighted above, payments were made under protest in India in respect of the periods 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2015 in relation to tax assessments where the risk is considered to be remote. These payments have to be made in order to challenge the assessments and as such have been recognised as a receivable on the consolidated balance sheet. The total amount of protest payments recognised as a receivable as at 30 June 2019 is £104 million (corporate tax payments of £94 million and indirect tax payments of £10 million), from which the payments made in the year ended 30 June 2019 amount to £51 million.
7. Taxation (extract)
Current tax is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit is different from accounting profit due to temporary differences between accounting and tax treatments, and due to items that are never taxable or tax deductible. Tax benefits are not recognised unless it is probable that the tax positions are sustainable. Once considered to be probable, tax benefits are reviewed each year to assess whether a provision should be taken against full recognition of the benefit on the basis of potential settlement through negotiation and/or litigation. Tax provisions are included in current liabilities. Penalties and interest on tax liabilities are included in operating profit and finance charges, respectively.
Full provision for deferred tax is made for temporary differences between the carrying value of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and their value for tax purposes. The amount of deferred tax reflects the expected recoverable amount and is based on the expected manner of recovery or settlement of the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, using the basis of taxation enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are not recognised where it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realised in the future. No deferred tax liability is provided in respect of any future remittance of earnings of foreign subsidiaries where the group is able to control the remittance of earnings and it is probable that such earnings will not be remitted in the foreseeable future, or where no liability would arise on the remittance.
Critical accounting estimates and judgements
The group is required to estimate the corporate tax in each of the many jurisdictions in which it operates. Management is required to estimate the amount that should be recognised as a tax liability or tax asset in many countries which are subject to tax audits which by their nature are often complex and can take several years to resolve; current tax balances are based on such estimations. Tax provisions are based on management’s judgement and interpretation of country specific tax law and the likelihood of settlement. However, the actual tax liabilities could differ from the provision and in such event the group would be required to make an adjustment in a subsequent period which could have a material impact on the group’s profit for the year.
The evaluation of deferred tax assets recoverability requires estimates to be made regarding the availability of future taxable income. For brands with an indefinite life, management’s intention is to recover the book value through a potential sale in the future, and therefore the deferred tax on the brand value is recognised using the appropriate country capital gains tax rate.
a) Analysis of taxation charge for the year
(b) Exceptional tax (credits)/charges
The taxation charge includes the following exceptional items:
(i) As disclosed in the interim announcement for the six months ended 31 December 2018, Diageo has been in discussions with the French tax authorities over the deductibility of certain interest costs, and assessments had been issued denying tax relief for interest costs incurred in the periods ended 30 June 2011 to 30 June 2017 with a maximum potential liability of €241 million (£213 million). In July 2019 Diageo reached a resolution on the treatment of interest costs for all open periods which resulted in a total exceptional charge of €100 million (£88 million), comprising a tax charge of €69 million (£61 million), penalties of €21 million (£18 million) and interest of €10 million (£9 million). This brings to a close all open issues with the French tax authorities for periods up to and including 30 June 2017.
(ii) During the year ended 30 June 2019 the Dutch Senate agreed to a phased reduction in the Dutch corporate tax rate which is effective from 1 January 2020. An exceptional tax credit of £51 million principally arose from remeasuring the deferred tax liabilities in respect of the Ketel One vodka distribution rights from a tax rate of 25% to 20.5%.
(iii) The exceptional tax credit of £354 million ($478 million) resulted from applying the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), enacted on 22 Dec ember 2017, in the United States. The credit principally arose on remeasuring the deferred tax liabilities in respect of intangibles and other assets for the change in the US Federal tax rate from 35% to 21%, resulting in an exceptional tax credit of £363 million ($490 million), which is partially offset by £9 million ($12 million) exceptional tax charge in respect of repatriation of untaxed foreign earnings. In addition, there was a one-off charge of £11 million ($15 million) to other comprehensive income and equity, in respect of the remeasurement of the deferred tax assets on post employment liabilities and share-based incentive plans as a result of applying the provisions of the TCJA.
(iv) During 2017 Diageo was in discussions with HMRC to seek clarity on Diageo’s transfer pricing and related issues, and in the first half of the year ending 30 June 2018 a preliminary assessment for diverted profits tax notice was issued. Final charging notices were issued in August 2017 and Diageo paid £107 million in respect of the two years ended 30 June 2016. Diageo agreed in June 2018 with HMRC that diverted profits tax does not apply and at the same time has reached resolution on the transfer pricing issues being discussed. The agreement in respect of transfer pricing covers the period from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2017 and has resulted in an additional UK tax charge of £143 million. In the year ended 30 June 2018 an additional tax charge of £47 million was recognised in current tax which is based on the approach agreed with HMRC.
(c) Taxation rate reconciliation and factors that may affect future tax charges
(i) Other items not deductible include controlled foreign companies charge, irrecoverable withholding tax and additional state and local taxes.
(ii) Changes in tax rates for the year ended 30 June 2019 principally arose from the tax rate change in the Netherlands. Changes in tax rates for the year ended 30 June 2018 was mainly due to the application of the TCJA.
(iii) Adjustment in respect of prior years for the year ended 30 June 2019 includes £61 million exceptional tax charge in respect of the French tax audit settlement. The £166 million prior year adjustment for the year ended 30 June 2018 is principally in respect of the exceptional tax charge in respect of the UK transfer pricing agreement.
The table above reconciles the notional taxation charge calculated at the UK tax rate, to the actual total tax charge. As a group operating in multiple countries, the actual tax rates applicable to profits in those countries are different from the UK tax rate. The impact is shown in the table above as differences in overseas tax rates. The group’s worldwide business leads to the consideration of a number of important factors which may affect future tax charges, such as: the levels and mix of profitability in different jurisdictions, transfer pricing regulations, tax rates imposed and tax regime reforms, acquisitions, disposals, restructuring activities, and settlements or agreements with tax authorities.
Significant ongoing changes in the international tax environment and an increase in global tax audit activity means that tax uncertainties and associated risks have been gradually increasing. In the medium term, these risks could result in an increase in tax liabilities or adjustments to the carrying value of deferred tax assets and liabilities. See note 18 (h).
The group has a number of ongoing tax audits worldwide for which provisions are recognised based on best estimates and management’s judgements concerning the ultimate outcome of the audit. As at 30 June 2019 the ongoing audits that are provided for individually are not expected to result in a material tax liability. The current tax asset of £83 million (2018 – £65 million) and tax liability of £378 million (2018 – £243 million) includes £251 million (2018 – £231 million) of provisions for tax uncertainties.
How we protect our business (extract)