Tesco PLC – Annual report – 26 February 2022
Note 1 Accounting policies, judgements and estimates (extract 1)
The Group assesses whether a contract is, or contains a lease at inception of the contract. A lease conveys the right to direct the use and obtain substantially all of the economic benefits of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
The Group as a lessee
A right of use asset and corresponding lease liability are recognised at commencement of the lease.
The lease liability is measured at the present value of the lease payments, discounted at the rate implicit in the lease, or if that cannot be readily determined, at the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate specific to the term, country, currency and start date of the lease. Lease payments include: fixed payments; variable lease payments dependent on an index or rate, initially measured using the index or rate at commencement; the exercise price under a purchase option if the Group is reasonably certain to exercise; penalties for early termination if the lease term reflects the Group exercising a break option; and payments in an optional renewal period if the Group is reasonably certain to exercise an extension option or not exercise a break option.
The lease liability is subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. It is remeasured, with a corresponding adjustment to the right of use asset, when there is a change in future lease payments resulting from a rent review, change in an index or rate such as inflation, or change in the Group’s assessment of whether it is reasonably certain to exercise a purchase, extension or break option.
The right of use asset is initially measured at cost, comprising: the initial lease liability; any lease payments already made less any lease incentives received; initial direct costs; and any dilapidation or restoration costs. The right of use asset is subsequently depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term or the useful life of the underlying asset. The right of use asset is tested for impairment if there are any indicators of impairment.
Leases of low value assets (value when new less than £5,000) and short-term leases of 12 months or less are expensed to the Group income statement, as are variable payments dependent on performance or usage, ‘out of contract’ payments and non-lease service components.
The Group as a lessor
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases. Where the Group is an intermediate lessor, the sublease classification is assessed with reference to the head lease right of use asset. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the amount of the Group’s net investment in the lease. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Group’s net investment in the lease. Rental income from operating leases is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
Sale and leaseback
A sale and leaseback transaction is where the Group sells an asset and immediately reacquires the use of the asset by entering into a lease with the buyer. A sale occurs when control of the underlying asset passes to the buyer. A lease liability is recognised, the associated property, plant and equipment asset is derecognised, and a right of use asset is recognised at the proportion of the carrying value relating to the right retained. Any gain or loss arising relates to the rights transferred to the buyer.
A property buyback is when a property that is currently leased is bought back from the landlord. Property buybacks that are a direct purchase of the underlying asset, outside a corporate wrapper, are viewed as the modification of the lease to include a purchase option, followed by the immediate exercise of that purchase option. The lease liability is settled and the right of use asset forms part of the cost of the property, plant and equipment acquired, and no gain or loss is recognised in the income statement from the property buyback.
Property buybacks inside a corporate wrapper (such as a special purpose vehicle or joint venture structure) that do not meet the definition of a business combination are asset acquisitions. The cost of the asset acquisition includes the cash consideration paid and the carrying values of pre-existing lease contracts and any previously held interests. No gain or loss is recognised in the income statement from the property buyback.
Note 1 Accounting policies, judgements and estimates (extract 2)
Judgements and sources of estimation uncertainty (extract)
Critical accounting judgements (extract)
Management exercises judgement in determining the likelihood of exercising break or extension options in determining the lease term. Break and extension options are included to provide operational flexibility should the economic outlook for an asset be different to expectations, and hence at commencement of the lease, break or extension options are not typically considered reasonably certain to be exercised, unless there is a valid business reason otherwise.
The discount rate used to calculate the lease liability is the rate implicit in the lease, if it can be readily determined, or the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate if not. Management uses the rate implicit in the lease where the lessor is a related party (such as leases from joint ventures) and the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate for all other leases. Incremental borrowing rates are determined monthly and depend on the term, country, currency and start date of the lease. The incremental borrowing rate is determined based on a series of inputs including: the risk-free rate based on government bond rates; a country-specific risk adjustment; a credit risk adjustment based on Tesco bond yields; and an entity-specific adjustment where the entity risk profile is different to that of the Group.
Refer to Note 12 for additional disclosures relating to leases.
Note 12 Leases
Group as lessee
Lease liabilities represent rentals payable by the Group for certain retail, distribution and office properties and other assets such as motor vehicles. The leases have varying terms, purchase options, escalation clauses and renewal rights. Purchase options and renewal rights, where they occur, are at market value. Escalation clauses are in line with market practices and include inflation-linked, fixed rates, resets to market rents and hybrids of these.
In prior years, the Group entered into several joint ventures, and sold and leased back properties to and from these joint ventures over 20 to 30-year terms. On certain transactions, the Group has an option to buy back either the leased asset or the equity of the other party, at market value and at a specified date, typically at year 10. On some of these transactions the Group also has a lease-break option, which is exercisable if the buyback option is exercised and the associated debt in the joint venture is repaid. The lease liability in respect of these leases assumes that the lease-break option is not exercised.
On 17 December 2021, the Group obtained control of The Tesco Sarum Limited Partnership (2021: The Tesco Property (No. 2) Limited Partnership on 18 September 2020), previously accounted for as a joint venture, through the acquisition of the other partner’s 50% interest, at which point the associated property leases from the joint venture became intercompany leases. Refer to Note 34 for further details.
Right of use assets
The following tables show the discounted lease liabilities included in the Group balance sheet and a maturity analysis of the contractual undiscounted lease payments:
A reconciliation of the Group’s opening to closing lease liabilities balance is presented in Note 33.
Future possible cash outflows not included in the lease liability
Some leases contain break clauses or extension options to provide operational flexibility. Potential future undiscounted lease payments not included in the reasonably certain lease term, and hence not included in lease liabilities, total £9.5bn (2021: £10.8bn).
Future increases or decreases in rentals linked to an index or rate are not included in the lease liability until the change in cash flows takes effect. Approximately 75% (2021: 75%) of the Group’s lease liabilities are subject to inflation-linked rentals and a further 16% (2021: 15%) are subject to rent reviews. Rental changes linked to inflation or rent reviews typically occur on an annual or five-yearly basis.
The Group is committed to payments totalling £54m (2021: £36m) in relation to leases that have been signed but have not yet commenced.
Group as lessor
The Group leases out owned properties and sublets leased properties under operating and finance leases. Such properties include malls, mall units, stores, units within stores, distribution centres and residential properties.
Finance lease payments receivable
The finance lease receivable (net investment in the lease) included in the Group balance sheet is £81m (2021: £86m).