ČEZ, a. s. – Annual report – 31 December 2017
- Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (extract)
2.24. Nuclear Provisions
The Group has recognized provisions for its obligations to decommission its nuclear power plants at the end of their operating lives, to store the related spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste initially on an interim basis and provision for its obligation to provide financing for subsequent permanent storage of spent fuel and irradiated parts of reactors (see Note 21.1).
The provisions recognized represent the best estimate of the expenditures required to settle the present obligation at the current balance sheet date. Such cost estimates, expressed at current price levels at the date of the estimate, are discounted at December 31, 2017 and 2016 using a long-term real rate of interest to take into account the timing of payments in amount of 1.25% and 1.5% per annum, respectively. The initial discounted cost amounts are capitalized as part of property, plant and equipment and are depreciated over the period when the nuclear power plants generate electricity. Each year, the provisions are increased to reflect the accretion of discount and to accrue an estimate for the effects of inflation, with the charges being presented in the income statement on the line Interest on provisions. At December 31, 2017 and 2016 the estimate for the effect of inflation is 1.25% and 1%, respectively.
The decommissioning process is expected to continue for approximately a fifty-year period subsequent to the final operation of the plants. It is currently anticipated that the permanent storage facility will become available in 2065 and the process of final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel will then continue until approximately 2084. While the Group has made its best estimate in establishing its nuclear provisions, because of potential changes in technology as well as safety and environmental requirements, plus the actual time scale to complete decommissioning and fuel storage activities, the ultimate provision requirements could vary significantly from the Group’s current estimates.
Changes in a decommissioning liability and in liability for final storage of spent nuclear fuel that result from a change in the current best estimate of timing and/or amount of cash flows required to settle the obligation or from a change in the discount rate are added to (or deducted from) the amount recognized as the related asset. However, to the extent that such a treatment would result in a negative asset, the effect of the change is recognized in the income for the current period.
2.7. Fuel Costs
Fuel costs are expensed as fuel is consumed. Fuel expense includes the amortization of the cost of nuclear fuel (see Note 2.10).
2.9. Property, Plant and Equipment (extract)
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and impairment in value. Cost of plant in service includes materials, labor, payroll-related costs and the cost of debt financing used during construction. The cost also includes the estimated cost of dismantling and removing the asset and restoring the site, to the extent that is recognized as a provision under IAS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. Government grants received for construction of certain items of property, plant and equipment decrease the acquisition cost of the respective items.
2.10. Nuclear Fuel
The Group presents nuclear fuel as part of property, plant and equipment, because its useful life exceeds 1 year. Nuclear fuel is recorded at cost, net of accumulated amortization and possible impairment in value. Nuclear fuel includes the capitalized portion of the provision for interim storage of nuclear fuel. Amortization of fuel in the reactor is based on the amount of power generated and is recognized in the income statement in the line item Fuel. The amortization of nuclear fuel includes charges in respect of additions to the accumulated provision for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with International Financial Reporting Standards requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Explanation of key assumptions is included in relevant sections of notes where significant estimates are being described. Significant estimates are made by the Group while determining recoverable amounts for property, plant and equipment and intangible assets (see Note 7), accounting for the nuclear provisions (see Note 21.1), provisions for reclamation of mines, mining damages and waste storage reclamation (see Note 21.2), unbilled electricity (see Note 2.6), fair value of commodity contracts (see Notes 2.21 and 19) and financial derivatives (see Notes 2.20 and 19).
- Provisions (extract)
Provisions at December 31, 2017 and 2016 are as follows (in CZK millions):
21.1. Nuclear Provisions
The Company operates two nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plant Dukovany consists of four units which were put into service from 1985 to 1987. Nuclear power plant Temelín has two units which have started commercial operation in 2002 and 2003. The Czech parliament has enacted a Nuclear Act (Act) which defines certain obligations for the decontamination and dismantling (decommissioning) of nuclear facilities and the disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel (disposal). The Act requires that all nuclear parts of plant and equipment be decommissioned following the end of the plant’s operating life. For the purpose of accounting for the nuclear provisions, it is assumed that the end of the plant’s operating life will be 2037 for Dukovany and 2052 for Temelín. A 2013 Dukovany and a 2014 Temelín decommissioning cost study estimate that nuclear decommissioning will cost CZK 22.4 billion and CZK 18.4 billion, respectively. The Company makes contributions to a restricted bank account in the amount of the nuclear provisions recorded under the Act. These restricted funds can be invested in government bonds and term deposits in accordance with the legislation and are shown in the balance sheet as part of Restricted financial assets (see Note 4).
Pursuant to the Act, the Ministry of Industry and Trade established the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) as the central organizer and operator of facilities for the final disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel. The RAWRA operates, supervises and is responsible for disposal facilities and for disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel therein. The activities of the RAWRA are financed through a nuclear account funded by the originators of radioactive waste. Contribution to the nuclear account is stated by legislation at 50 CZK per MWh produced at nuclear power plants till 2016 and at 55 CZK per MWh produced at nuclear power plants since 2017. In 2017 and 2016, the payments to the nuclear account amounted to CZK 1,559 million and CZK 1,205 million, respectively. The originator of radioactive waste and spent fuel directly covers all costs associated with interim storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel.
The Group has established provisions as described in Note 2.24, to recognize its estimated liabilities for decommissioning and spent fuel storage. The following is a summary of the provisions for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 (in CZK millions):
The current cash expenditures for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel represent payments to the state controlled nuclear account and the expenditures for interim storage represent mainly the purchase of interim fuel storage containers and other related equipment.
In 2017, the Group recorded a change in estimate for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel in connection with the change in expectations of future storage costs and change in discount rate, the change in estimate in provision for nuclear decommissioning in connection with the change of timing of the costs for decommissioning expenditure in Temelín nuclear power plant and change in discount rate and the change in long-term spent fuel storage in connection with the modification of the expected output of the nuclear power plants.
In 2016, the Group recorded a change in estimate for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel in connection with the change of anticipated future storage costs, in estimate for the nuclear decommissioning in connection with the change of timing of the costs for decommissioning expenditure in Dukovany nuclear power plant and in estimate for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel because of the change in expected production in nuclear power plants and in the amount of the contribution paid to the state nuclear account from the year 2017 on.
The actual decommissioning and spent fuel storage costs could vary substantially from the above estimates because of new regulatory requirements, changes in technology, increased costs of labor, materials, and equipment and/or the actual time required to complete all decommissioning, disposal and storage activities.