MTN Group Limited – Annual report – 31 December 2017
1 ACCOUNTING FRAMEWORK AND CRITICAL JUDGEMENTS
1.1 Basis of preparation
The group financial statements of MTN Group Limited (the company) comprise the company and its subsidiaries and the group’s interest in associates and joint ventures (together referred to as the group and individually as group entities).
The group financial statements and company financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and Interpretations as issued by the IFRS Interpretations Committee (IFRIC), and comply with the SAICA Financial Reporting Guides as issued by the Accounting Practices Committee, Financial Reporting Pronouncements as issued by the Financial Reporting Standards Council (FRSC), the JSE Listings Requirements and the requirements of the South African Companies Act, No 71 of 2008. The group and the company have adopted all new accounting pronouncements that became effective in the current reporting period, none of which had a material impact on the group or the company, except for the amendment to IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows, which requires additional disclosure, comprising a reconciliation of the year-on-year movement in liabilities arising from financing activities.
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis adjusted for the effects of inflation where entities operate in hyperinflationary economies and for certain financial instruments that have been measured at fair value, where applicable.
The South Sudanese and Syrian economies have been considered to be hyperinflationary. Accordingly, the results, cash flows and financial position of the group’s subsidiaries, MTN South Sudan Limited and MTN Syria (JSC) have been expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the reporting date.
Sudan ceased being regarded as a hyperinflationary economy during 2016, resulting in hyperinflation accounting relating to MTN Sudan Company Limited not being applied from 1 July 2016 onward. The methods used to measure fair value and the adjustments made to account for the group’s entities that operate in hyperinflationary economies are discussed further in the accounting policies and in the respective notes.
Amounts are rounded to the nearest million with the exception of earnings per share and the related number of shares (note 2.7), number of ordinary shares (note 8.1), share-based payments (note 8.4) and directors’ emoluments and interests (note 10.2).
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgements in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements are included in note 1.5.
1.3.2 Foreign currency
Functional and presentation currency
Items included in the financial statements of each entity in the group are measured using the entity’s functional currency. The group financial statements are presented in South African rand, which is the functional and presentation currency of the company.
Transactions and balances
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains or losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at reporting date exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in profit or loss.
Translation of foreign operations
The results, cash flows and financial position of group entities which are not accounted for as entities operating in hyperinflationary economies and that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency of the group are translated into the presentation currency as follows:
- Assets and liabilities, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on acquisition, are translated at rates of exchange ruling at the reporting date.
- Specific transactions in equity are translated at rates of exchange ruling at the transaction dates.
- Income and expenditure and cash flow items are translated at weighted average exchange rates for the period or translated at exchange rates at the date of the transaction, where applicable.
- Foreign exchange translation differences are recognised as other comprehensive income and accumulated in the foreign currency translation reserve, except to the extent the difference is allocated to non-controlling interests.
The results, cash flows and financial position of the group entities which are accounted for as entities operating in hyperinflationary economies and that have functional currencies different from the presentation currency of the group are translated into the presentation currency of its immediate parent at rates of exchange ruling at the reporting date. As the presentation currency of the group or that of the immediate parent is that of a non-hyperinflationary economy, comparative amounts are not adjusted for changes in the price level or exchange rates in the current year.
An entity may have a monetary item that is receivable from a foreign operation. An item for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur in the foreseeable future is, in substance, a part of the entity’s net investment in that foreign operation. On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign operations are taken to other comprehensive income and accumulated in the foreign currency translation reserve.
The exchange rates relevant to the group are disclosed in note 7.6.
Disposal of foreign operations
On disposal of a foreign operation, all exchange differences accumulated in equity in respect of that operation attributable to the equity holders of the group are reclassified to profit or loss. Exchange differences accumulated in equity in respect of a monetary item that is part of the group’s net investment in a foreign operation, are not reclassified to profit or loss on settlement of the monetary item.
In the case of a partial disposal that does not result in the group losing control over a subsidiary that includes a foreign operation, the proportionate share of accumulated exchange differences is reattributed to non-controlling interests and is not recognised in profit or loss. For all other partial disposals, the proportionate share of the accumulated exchange differences is reclassified to profit or loss.
For more details on judgements applied in the selection of exchange rates in countries operating in dual exchange rate economies please refer to note 1.5.3.
The financial statements (including comparative amounts) of the group entities whose functional currencies are the currencies of hyperinflationary economies are adjusted in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period.
As the presentation currency of the group is that of a non-hyperinflationary economy, comparative amounts are not adjusted for changes in the price level or exchange rates in the current year. Differences between these comparative amounts and current year hyperinflation adjusted equity balances are recognised in other comprehensive income.
The carrying amounts of non-monetary assets and liabilities are adjusted to reflect the change in the general price index from the date of acquisition to the end of the reporting period. An impairment loss is recognised in profit or loss if the restated amount of a non-monetary item exceeds its estimated recoverable amount.
Gains or losses on the net monetary position are recognised in profit or loss.
All items recognised in the income statement are restated by applying the change in the general price index from the dates when the items of income and expenses were initially earned or incurred.
At the beginning of the first period of application, the components of equity, except retained earnings, are restated by applying a general price index from the dates the components were contributed or otherwise arose. These restatements are recognised directly in equity as an adjustment to opening retained earnings. Restated retained earnings are derived from all other amounts in the restated statement of financial position. At the end of the first period and in subsequent periods, all components of equity are restated by applying a general price index from the beginning of the period or the date of contribution, if later.
All items in the statement of cash flows are expressed in terms of the general price index at the end of the reporting period.
The South Sudanese and Syrian economies have been classified as hyperinflationary.
Accordingly, the results, cash flows and financial position of the group’s subsidiaries, MTN South Sudan Limited and MTN Syria (JSC), have been expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the reporting date. For further details, refer to note 1.5.7. Sudan ceased being regarded as a hyperinflationary economy during 2016, resulting in hyperinflation accounting relating to MTN Sudan Company Limited not being applied from 1 July 2016 onward.
1.5 Critical accounting judgements, estimates and assumptions (extract)
The group exercises significant judgement in determining the onset of hyperinflation in countries in which it operates and whether the functional currency of its subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy.
Various characteristics of the economic environment of each country are taken into account.
These characteristics include, but are not limited to, whether:
- the general population prefers to keep its wealth in non-monetary assets or in a relatively stable foreign currency;
- prices are quoted in a relatively stable foreign currency;
- sales or purchase prices take expected losses of purchasing power during a short credit period into account;
- interest rates, wages and prices are linked to a price index; and
- the cumulative inflation rate over three years is approaching, or exceeds, 100%.
Management exercises judgement as to when a restatement of the financial statements of a group entity becomes necessary. Following management’s assessment, the group’s subsidiaries, MTN South Sudan Company Limited and MTN Syria (JSC), have been accounted for as entities operating in hyperinflationary economies. The results, cash flows and financial positions of MTN South Sudan Company Limited and MTN Syria (JSC) have been expressed in terms of the measuring units current at the reporting date.
MTN South Sudan Company Limited
The economy of South Sudan was assessed to be hyperinflationary effective 1 January 2016 and hyperinflation accounting was applied for the year ended 31 December 2016. Upon first application of hyperinflation, prior period losses of R123 million arising from the net monetary position were recognised directly in equity. As at 31 December 2017 and 2016, the property, plant and equipment of South Sudan was fully impaired, resulting in no hyperinflation adjustment on capital expenditure (capex) for the respective year.
The general price index used as published by the International Monetary Fund is as follows:
The cumulative inflation rate over three years as at 31 December 2017 is 2 472%. The average adjustment factor used for 2017 was 1,6.
MTN Syria (JSC)
The economy of Syria was assessed to be hyperinflationary effective 1 January 2014, and hyperinflation accounting has been applied since. Reliable inflation data could not be obtained on the inflation rate in Syria. The general price index set out below was calculated by reference to the change in the United States dollar (US$):Syrian pound (SYP) exchange rate.
Until 30 June 2017, hyperinflation accounting was applied by estimating Syria’s inflation rate using the change in the US$:SYP exchange rate. The SYP started strengthening against the US$ from October 2017 onwards. Syria’s 2017 estimated inflation rate using the change in US$:SYP exchange rate, after the SYP strengthened, was negative, i.e. there was deflation in the second half of 2017.
However, the characteristics of Syria’s economy continue to indicate that Syria’s economy is hyperinflationary. Recognising deflation in the second half of 2017 was not considered appropriate, due to lack of sufficient available information at 31 December 2017. Therefore, a hyperinflation adjustment factor of 1 was applied from 1 July 2017 to 31 December 2017.
The cumulative inflation rate over three years as at 31 December 2017 is 120%. The average adjustment factor used for 2017 was 1,04.
As at 31 December 2017, R1 348 million of assets previously written up for hyperinflation have been impaired with the impact being included in EBITDA during the year under review.
MTN Sudan Company Limited and Irancell Telecommunication Company Services (PJSC)
The economy of Sudan was assessed to no longer be hyperinflationary, effective 1 July 2016, and hyperinflation accounting was discontinued from this date onwards. Accordingly, the amounts expressed in terms of the measuring unit at 30 June 2016 were treated as the basis for the carrying amounts with no further hyperinflation adjustments being passed from 1 July 2016 onwards. As at 31 December 2017, the historical increase in the asset value as a result of hyperinflation accounting has been fully impaired, which resulted in a R1 690 million decrease in EBITDA in the current financial year.
In 2015, the Iranian economy was assessed to no longer be hyperinflationary and hyperinflation accounting was discontinued effective 1 July 2015 on the same basis as for MTN Sudan Company Limited with no further hyperinflation adjustments being passed from 1 July 2015 onwards. The group’s results from Iran includes expenses resulting from the discontinuation of hyperinflation accounting mainly relating to the subsequent depreciation of assets that were historically written up under hyperinflation accounting. The additional income statement charge reduced equity-accounted earnings from Iran by R1 328 million for the year ended 31 December 2017 (31 December 2016: R1 853 million).
The cumulative impact of adjusting the group’s results for the effects of hyperinflation is set out below: