Telefonica S.A. – Annual report – 31 December 2019
Note 2. Basis of presentation of the consolidated financial statements (extract)
Translation of Telefónica Venezolana’s financial statements
Venezuela has been considered a hyperinflationary economy since 2009. We regularly review the economic conditions in Venezuela and the specific circumstances of our Venezuelan operations. Assessment of the exchange rate that better reflects the economics of Telefónica’s business activities in Venezuela relies on several factors and is performed considering all the information available at each closing date. On August 20, 2018 Venezuela introduced the Bolivar Soberano (VES), which replaced the Bolívar Fuerte (VEF) removing five zeros (1 VES = 100,000 VEF).
In light of the economic environment and in the absence of official rates that are representative of the situation in Venezuela, the Group maintained its policy for estimating an exchange rate to match the progression of inflation in Venezuela and attempts to reflect the economic and financial position of the Group’s Venezuelan operations within its consolidated financial statements more accurately (hereinafter, synthetic exchange rate).
At December 31, 2019, the synthetic exchange rate was calculated considering the inflation rates that were published (9,585.5% from January to December 2019). The inflation rate applied by the Group to Venezuela for January to December 2018 was 2,106,600.6%. Thus, the exchange rate used to translate the financial statements of the Venezuelan subsidiaries as of December 31, 2019 amounts to 68,448 VES/USD (7,608 VES/USD as of December 31, 2018).
The official reference exchange rate at December 31, 2019 was 46,621 VES/USD (638 VES/USD at December 31, 2018).
The translation of the financial statements of Telefónica Venezolana in 2019 had an impact in retained earnings amounting to -212 million euros (-23 million euros in 2018). The following table presents the figures of Telefónica Venezolana in certain items of the consolidated income statement, the consolidated statement of cash flows and the consolidated statement of financial position of the Telefónica Group, by applying the synthetic exchange rate:
(1) Mainly resulting from the hyperinflation adjustment to the net monetary position and the exchange differences arising from foreign currency items held by Telefónica Venezolana.
(2) Mainly deferred tax recognized for the inflation adjustments of the net assets, which are not deductible according to the present tax regime in Venezuela.
Hyperinflation in Argentina
Argentina has been considered a hyperinflationary economy since 2018 and the Group applied hyper-inflation accounting to its companies whose functional currency is the Argentine peso for financial information for periods ended after July 1, 2018.
As of January 1, 2018 the total impact in net equity amounted to 2,033 million euros (see consolidated statement of changes in equity), which included the transfer of 3,147 million euros of translation differences arisen prior to the economy being considered as hyperinflationary, as a consequence of the full retrospective application of IAS 29.
The main impacts of the application of hyperinflation adjustments in Argentina in the consolidated financial statements of the Group for the years 2019 and 2018, are summarized below:
The translation of the financial statements of the Group companies in Argentina in 2019 had an impact in Retained earnings amounting to -46 million euros (-776 million euros in 2018)
Note 3. Accounting policies (extracts)
As stated in Note 2, the Group’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRSs and interpretations issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the IFRS Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) as endorsed by the European Commission for use in the European Union (IFRSs – EU).
Accordingly, only the most significant accounting policies used in preparing the accompanying consolidated financial statements, in light of the nature of the Group’s activities, are set out below, as well as the accounting policies applied where IFRSs permit a policy choice, and those that are specific to the sector in which the Group operates.
a) Hyperinflationary economies
Venezuela has been considered a hyperinflationary economy since 2009. The inflation rates used to prepare the financial information are the Indice Nacional de Precios al Consumidor de Venezuela, published by the Central Bank of Venezuela, or the best estimate in case the final index is not available. On an annual basis, these rates are 9,585.5%, 2,106,600.6% and 2,874.1% for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The exchange rate used to translate inflation-adjusted bolivar-denominated items is the exchange rate as of the closing date of each reporting period in the consolidated financial statements, amounting to 68,448 bolivars per U.S. dollar (synthetic exchange rate, see Note 2), 7,608 bolivars per U.S. dollar (synthetic exchange rate) and 36,115 bolivars per U.S. dollar (synthetic exchange rate) as of December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
In 2018 Argentina became a hyperinflationary economy (see Note 2). In order to restate its financial statements, the Company uses the series of indices defined by resolution JG No. 539/18 issued by the Federación Argentina de Consejos Profesionales de Ciencias Económicas (FACPCE), based on the National Consumer Price Index (IPC) published by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INDEC) of the Argentine Republic and the Wholesale Internal Price Index (IPIM) published by FACPCE. The cumulative index at December 31, 2019 and 2018 is 283.44%and 184.85%, respectively while on an annual basis the index for 2019 is 53% (48% in 2018).
The exchange rate used to translate inflation-adjusted items denominated in Argentine pesos in the 2019 financial statements is the closing exchange rate as of December 31, 2019 which was 67.26 Argentine pesos per euro (43.30 Argentine pesos per euro at December 31, 2018).
The Group includes in a single line item all the equity effects derived from hyperinflation. This is as follows: (a) the restatement for inflation of the financial statements of the Group companies operating in hyperinflationary economies, and (b) the effects of translating their respective financial statements into euros using the exchange rate at the end of the period.
m) Use of estimates (extract)
Exchange rate and inflation rates used to translate the financial statements of our Venezuelan subsidiaries
The Group reviews, on a regular basis, the economic conditions in Venezuela and the specific circumstances of its Venezuelan operations. In light of the worsening of the economic and political crisis in Venezuela and in the absence of official rates that are representative of the situation in the country, at December 31, 2019 the Group maintains its policy to estimate an exchange rate that matches the progression of inflation in Venezuela and reflects the economic and financial position of the Group’s Venezuelan operations within its consolidated financial statements in a more accurate way.
Assessment of the exchange rate that best reflects the economics of Telefónica’s business activities in Venezuela relies on several factors and is performed considering all the information available at the closing date, and entails the use of assumptions and estimates and significant management judgment.
Due to inherent uncertainties in the estimates required to determine the appropriate exchange rate for the conversion of Venezuelan bolivar-denominated financial statements, actual cash flows denominated in such currency may differ from the amounts currently recognized on the basis of our estimates, as a result of changes in currency laws or changes in exchange mechanisms or published exchange rates that may have an impact on the conversion rate used for our Venezuelan subsidiaries’ financial statements, affecting the net monetary position of Venezuelan bolivar-denominated assets (liabilities).
In addition to this, Venezuela has been considered a hyperinflationary economy since 2009. Telefónica recognizes the effects of inflation by restating the financial information of its Venezuelan operation using the Indice Nacional de Precios al Consumidor de Venezuela issued by the Central Bank of Venezuela, or the best estimate in case the final index is not available.
Significant management judgment is required to determine the appropriate inflation rate when the official rate is not available. The estimates and underlying assumptions are based on careful consideration of factors that are deemed to be relevant and rely on all the information available at the closing date. Actual results may differ from these estimates as a result of changes in circumstances and assumptions about future developments in Venezuela due to evolving market conditions, uncertainty about currency and operating restrictions or other circumstances arising beyond the control of the Company.