Telefonica S.A. – Annual report – 31 December 2020
Note 2. Basis of presentation of the consolidated financial statements (extract)
COVID-19: impact and response in Telefónica (extract)
The COVID-19 crisis caused the greatest GDP fall of the last decades and, inevitably, it impacted the financial and operative performance of the Group. Consolidated revenues and operating income decreased 11.0% and 8.8% year-on-year, respectively, partly due to the effect of the pandemic.
Revenues were affected by the reduction of the commercial activity, which was reflected in lower service revenues and lower handset sales. Telefónica experienced the most significant effects during the second quarter as lockdowns imposed across the Group’s markets put unprecedented pressure to commercial activity. In this period the impairment of trade receivables increased, mainly in Telefonica Hispam, with a subsequent improvement in the second half of the year (see Note 14).
The decrease in revenues was partially mitigated by the measures taken to reduce costs and by lower churn rates. Furthermore, CapEx was reduced 33.3% year-on-year (see Note 4), consequently the impact in the operating cash flow was lower than the impact in the income.
The crisis contributed to the significant depreciation against the euro of the major currencies of the countries where the Group operates, as shown below.
This depreciation had a negative impact in Equity attributable to equity holders of the parent amounting to 5,801 million euros (see Note 17).
Due to the indications of impairment during the year, the Group carried out goodwill impairment tests at interim periods, with a special emphasis on those cash generating units with a carrying value closer to the value in use at December 31, 2019. At year-end closing these analysis were updated, based on the latest business plans of the various cash-generating units, approved by Telefónica’s Board of Directors. These plans include the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis.
As a result of this analysis, an impairment loss was recognized for the total goodwill allocated to Telefónica Argentina amounting to 519 million euros (see Note 7). In addition, an impairment loss for intangible assets amounting to 106 million euros (see Note 6) and an impairment loss for property, plant and equipment amounting to 269 million euros (see Note 8) were recognized for this cash generating unit (CGU). As a result of the impairment of these assets, the deferred tax liability associated with the hyperinflation adjustment in Argentina was partially derecognized, amounting to 94 million euros (see Note 25).
Translation of Telefónica Venezolana’s financial statements
Venezuela has been considered a hyperinflationary economy since 2009. We regularly review the economic conditions in Venezuela and the specific circumstances of our Venezuelan operations. Assessment of the exchange rate that better reflects the economics of Telefónica’s business activities in Venezuela relies on several factors and is performed considering all the information available at each closing date.
On August 20, 2018 Venezuela introduced the Bolivar Soberano (VES), which replaced the Bolívar Fuerte (VEF) removing five zeros (1 VES = 100,000 VEF).
In light of the economic environment and in the absence of official rates that are representative of the situation in Venezuela, the Group maintained its policy for estimating an exchange rate to match the progression of inflation in Venezuela and attempts to reflect the economic and financial position of the Group’s Venezuelan operations within its consolidated financial statements more accurately (hereinafter, synthetic exchange rate).
At December 31, 2020, the synthetic exchange rate was calculated considering the inflation rates that were published (2,959.8% from January to December 2020). The inflation rate published for January to December 2019 was 9,585.5%. Thus, the exchange rate used to translate the financial statements of the Venezuelan subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020 amounts to 2,094,405 VES/USD (68,448 VES/USD as of December 31, 2019).
The official reference exchange rate at December 31, 2020 was 1,107,199 VES/USD (46,621 VES/USD at December 31, 2019).
The translation of the financial statements of Telefónica Venezolana in 2020 had a negative impact in retained earnings amounting to 26 million euros (-212 million euros in 2019).
The following table presents the figures of Telefónica Venezolana in certain items of the consolidated income statement, the consolidated statement of cash flows and the consolidated statement of financial position of the Telefónica Group, by applying the synthetic exchange rate:
(1) Mainly resulting from the hyperinflation adjustment to the net monetary position and the exchange differences arising from foreign currency items held by Telefónica Venezolana.
(2) Mainly deferred tax recognized for the inflation adjustments of the net assets, which are not deductible according to the present tax regime in Venezuela.
Change in accounting policy for the presentation of hyperinflation effects in equity
Since 2018, the Group includes all the equity effects derived from hyperinflation, i.e.: (a) the restatement for inflation of the financial statements of the Group companies operating in hyperinflationary economies, and (b) the effects of translating their respective financial statements into euros using the exchange rate at the end of the period, in a single line item under the heading Retained Earnings.
In March 2020, the International Financial Reporting Standards Committee (IFRIC) released its interpretation in this regard, indicating that these impacts should be recorded either separately, the former in Retained Earnings and the latter in Translation Differences, or jointly recognized as Translation Differences under the heading Other Comprehensive Income.
As a result, in 2020 the Group adopted this presentation policy and now presents the equity effects of hyperinflation under Translation Differences, within Other Comprehensive Income, rather than under the heading Retained Earnings. The consolidated net equity is not modified by this change in presentation.
In accordance with IAS 8, financial information from previous years presented for comparative purposes has been restated so that the information is comparable. Consequently, the Retained Earnings heading no longer includes the cumulative effects arising from hyperinflation in Venezuela and Argentina, which have been reclassified to Translation Differences amounting to 5,664 million euros at 31 December 2019 and 5,406 million euros at 31 December 2018.
As this change in accounting policy is a reclassification within equity, the basic and diluted earnings per share figures are not affected in any of the periods presented.
Note 3. Accounting policies
As stated in Note 2, the Group’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRSs and interpretations issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the IFRS Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) as endorsed by the European Commission for use in the European Union (IFRSs – EU).
Accordingly, only the most significant accounting policies used in preparing the accompanying consolidated financial statements, in light of the nature of the Group’s activities, are set out below, as well as the accounting policies applied where IFRSs permit a policy choice, and those that are specific to the sector in which the Group operates.
a) Hyperinflationary economies
Venezuela has been considered a hyperinflationary economy since 2009. The inflation rates used to prepare the financial information are the Indice Nacional de Precios al Consumidor de Venezuela, published by the Central Bank of Venezuela, or the best estimate in case the final index is not available. On an annual basis, these rates are 2,959.8%, 9,585.5% and 2,106,600.6% for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The exchange rate used to translate inflation-adjusted bolivar-denominated items is the exchange rate as of the closing date of each reporting period in the consolidated financial statements, amounting to 2,094,405 bolivars per U.S. dollar (synthetic exchange rate, see Note 2), 68,448 bolivars per U.S. dollar (synthetic exchange rate) and 7,608 bolivars per U.S. dollar (synthetic exchange rate) as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
In 2018 Argentina became a hyperinflationary economy (see Note 2). In order to restate its financial statements, the Company uses the series of indices defined by resolution JG No. 539/18 issued by the Federación Argentina de Consejos Profesionales de Ciencias Económicas (FACPCE), based on the National Consumer Price Index (IPC) published by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INDEC) of the Argentine Republic and the Wholesale Internal Price Index (IPIM) published by FACPCE. The cumulative index at December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is 385.9%, 283.4% and 184.9%, respectively, while on an annual basis the index for 2020 is 36% (53% and 48% in 2019 and 2018, respectively).
The exchange rate used to translate inflation-adjusted items denominated in Argentine pesos in the 2020 financial statements is the closing exchange rate as of December 31, 2020 which was 103.23 Argentine pesos per euro (67.26 and 43.30 Argentine pesos per euro at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively).
The Group includes in a single line item (“Translation Differences”) all the equity effects derived from hyperinflation. This is as follows: (a) the restatement for inflation of the financial statements of the Group companies operating in hyperinflationary economies, and (b) the effects of translating their respective financial statements into euros using the exchange rate at the end of the period.
b) Translation methodology
The income statements and statements of cash flows of the Telefónica Group’s foreign subsidiaries (except Venezuela and Argentina) were translated into euros at the average exchange rates for the year, as a rate that approximates the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions.
n) Use of estimates (extract)
Exchange rate and inflation rates used to translate the financial statements of our Venezuelan subsidiaries
The Group reviews, on a regular basis, the economic conditions in Venezuela and the specific circumstances of its Venezuelan operations. In light of the worsening of the economic and political crisis in Venezuela and in the absence of official rates that are representative of the situation in the country, at December 31, 2020 the Group maintains its policy to estimate an exchange rate that matches the progression of inflation in Venezuela and reflects the economic and financial position of the Group’s Venezuelan operations within its consolidated financial statements in a more accurate way.
Assessment of the exchange rate that best reflects the economics of Telefónica’s business activities in Venezuela relies on several factors and is performed considering all the information available at the closing date, and entails the use of assumptions and estimates and significant management judgment.
Due to inherent uncertainties in the estimates required to determine the appropriate exchange rate for the conversion of Venezuelan bolivar-denominated financial statements, actual cash flows denominated in such currency may differ from the amounts currently recognized on the basis of our estimates, as a result of changes in currency laws or changes in exchange mechanisms or published exchange rates that may have an impact on the conversion rate used for our Venezuelan subsidiaries’ financial statements, affecting the net monetary position of Venezuelan bolivar-denominated assets (liabilities).
In addition to this, Venezuela has been considered a hyperinflationary economy since 2009. Telefónica recognizes the effects of inflation by restating the financial information of its Venezuelan operation using the Indice Nacional de Precios al Consumidor de Venezuela issued by the Central Bank of Venezuela, or the best estimate in case the final index is not available.
Significant management judgment is required to determine the appropriate inflation rate when the official rate is not available. The estimates and underlying assumptions are based on careful consideration of factors that are deemed to be relevant and rely on all the information available at the closing date. Actual results may differ from these estimates as a result of changes in circumstances and assumptions about future developments in Venezuela due to evolving market conditions, uncertainty about currency and operating restrictions or other circumstances arising beyond the control of the Company.