Aldar Properties PJSC – Annual report – 31 December 2019
Industry: real estate
3 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (extract)
3.7 REVENUE RECOGNITION
For contracts determined to be within the scope of revenue recognition, the Group is required to apply a five-step model to determine when to recognise revenue, and at what amount. Revenue is measured based on the consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled in a contract with a customer and excludes amounts collected on behalf of third parties. The Group recognises revenue when it transfers control of a product or service to a customer.
The Group recognises revenue from the following major sources:
- Sale of properties, construction contracts and provision of services
- Service charges and expenses recoverable from tenant
- Hospitality revenue
- Income from leisure businesses
- Revenue from cooling assets
- Fee income from school
- Management fee
REVENUE FROM CONTRACTS WITH CUSTOMERS FOR SALE OF PROPERTIES, CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS AND PROVISION OF SERVICES
The Group recognises revenue from contracts with customers based on a five-step model as set out in IFRS 15:
Step 1 Identify contract(s) with a customer: A contract is defined as an agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations and sets out the criteria for every contract that must be met.
Step 2 Identify performance obligations in the contract: A performance obligation is a promise in a contract with a customer to transfer a good or service to the customer.
Step 3 Determine the transaction price: The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties.
Step 4 Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract: For a contract that has more than one performance obligation, the Group allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation in an amount that depicts the amount of consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled in exchange for satisfying each performance obligation.
Step 5 Recognise revenue when (or as) the Group satisfies a performance obligation.
The Group satisfies a performance obligation and recognises revenue over time, if one of the following criteria is met:
- The Group’s performance does not create an asset with an alternate use to the Group and the Group has as an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date.
- The Group’s performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced.
- The customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Group’s performance as the Group performs.
For performance obligations where one of the above conditions are not met, revenue is recognised at the point in time at which the performance obligation is satisfied.
When the Group satisfies a performance obligation by delivering the promised goods or services it creates a contract-based asset on the amount of consideration earned by the performance. Where the amount of consideration received from a customer exceeds the amount of revenue recognised this gives rise to a contract liability. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes and duty. The Group assesses its revenue arrangements against specific criteria to determine if it is acting as principal or agent. Revenue is recognised to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the revenue and costs, if applicable, can be measured reliably.
SERVICE CHARGES AND EXPENSES RECOVERABLE FROM TENANT
Income arising from cost recharged to tenants is recognised in the period in which the cost can be contractually recovered. Service charges and other such receipts are included gross of the related costs in revenue as the Group acts as principal in this respect.
Hotel revenue corresponds to all the revenues received from guests of the hotels. The services rendered (including room rentals, food and beverage sales and other ancillary services) are distinct performance obligations, for which prices invoiced to the guests are representative of their stand-alone selling prices. These obligations are fulfilled over time when they relate to room rentals, that is over the stay within the hotel, and at a point in time for other goods or services, when they have been delivered or rendered.
INCOME FROM LEISURE BUSINESSES
Income from leisure businesses comprises revenue from goods sold and services provided at golf courses, beach clubs and marinas, and is recognised at the point when the goods are sold or services are rendered.
INCOME FROM SCHOOLS
Registration fee is recognised as income when it is received. Tuition fee income is recognised over the period of tuition. Tuition fees received in advance are recorded as deferred income.
REVENUE FROM COOLING ASSETS
Revenue is recognised for supply of chilled water based on the agreements. The revenue in respect of the contracted capacity is recognised at the fixed rate, whereas the revenue in respect of the consumption of chilled water is recognised as these are consumed by the customer at agreed rates. In addition, customers are charged a one-time connection fee.
4 CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGMENTS AND KEY SOURCES OF ESTIMATION UNCERTAINTY (extract)
JUDGEMENTS IN RELATION TO CONTRACTS WITH CUSTOMERS
SATISFACTION OF PERFORMANCE OBLIGATIONS
The Group is required to assess each of its contracts with customers to determine whether performance obligations are satisfied over time or at a point in time in order to determine the appropriate method for recognising revenue. The Group has assessed that based on the contracts entered into with customers and the provisions of relevant laws and regulations, the Group recognises revenue over time in the following circumstances:
- where contracts are entered into for development (sale of properties to customers), the Group does not create an asset with an alternative use to the Group and has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date;
- where contracts are entered into for construction (to construct an asset for the customer), the Group’s performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced; and
- where contracts are entered into to provide services (property management and facility management), the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Group’s performance as the Group performs.
Where the above criteria are not met, revenue is recognised at a point in time. Where revenue is recognised at a point of time, the Group assesses each contract with customers to determine when the performance obligation of the Group under the contract is satisfied.