Aldar Properties PJSC – Annual report – 31 December 2017
Industry: real estate
3.7 REVENUE RECOGNITION
The Group had elected to early adopt IFRS 15 with effect from 1 January 2015.
Revenue from contracts with customers for sale of properties, construction contracts and provision of services
The Group recognises revenue from contracts with customers based on a five step model as set out in IFRS 15:
Step 1. Identify contract(s) with a customer: A contract is defined as an agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations and sets out the criteria for every contract that must be met.
Step 2. Identify performance obligations in the contract: A performance obligation is a promise in a contract with a customer to transfer a good or service to the customer.
Step 3 Determine the transaction price: The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties.
Step 4. Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract: For a contract that has more than one performance obligation, the Group allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation in an amount that depicts the amount of consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled in exchange for satisfying each performance obligation.
Step 5. Recognise revenue when (or as) the Group satisfies a performance obligation.
The Group satisfies a performance obligation and recognises revenue over time, if one of the following criteria is met:
a) The Group’s performance does not create an asset with an alternate use to the Group and the Group has as an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date.
b) The Group’s performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced.
c) The customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Group’s performance as the Group performs.
For performance obligations where one of the above conditions are not met, revenue is recognised at the point in time at which the performance obligation is satisfied.
When the Group satisfies a performance obligation by delivering the promised goods or services it creates a contract based asset on the amount of consideration earned by the performance. Where the amount of consideration received from a customer exceeds the amount of revenue recognised this gives rise to a contract liability.
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes and duty.
The Group assesses its revenue arrangements against specific criteria to determine if it is acting as principal or agent.
Revenue is recognised to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the revenue and costs, if applicable, can be measured reliably.
Rental income from operating leases is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.
Service charges and expenses recoverable from tenant
Income arising from cost recharged to tenants is recognised in the period in which the cost can be contractually recovered. Service charges and other such receipts are included gross of the related costs in revenue as the Group acts as principal in this respect.
Income from hotels
Income from hotels comprises revenue from rooms, food and beverages and other associated services provided, and is recognised at the point when the goods are sold or services are rendered.
Income from leisure businesses
Income from leisure businesses comprises revenue from goods sold and services provided at marinas and golf course, and is recognised at the point when the goods are sold or services are rendered.
Income from schools
Registration fee is recognised as income when it is received. Tuition fee income is recognised over the period of tuition. Tuition fees received in advance are recorded as deferred income.
Dividend income from investments is recognised when the Group’s right to receive payment has been established.
Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and effective interest rate applicable.
4 CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGMENTS AND KEY SOURCES OF ESTIMATION UNCERTAINTY (extract)
4.1 CRITICAL JUDGMENTS IN APPLYING ACCOUNTING POLICIES (extract)
Judgments in relation to contracts with customers
Satisfaction of performance obligations
The Group is required to assess each of its contracts with customers to determine whether performance obligations are satisfied over time or at a point in time in order to determine the appropriate method for recognising revenue. The Group has assessed that based on the contracts entered into with customers and the provisions of relevant laws and regulations, the Group recognises revenue over time in the following circumstances:
a) where contracts are entered into for development (sale of properties to customers), the Group does not create an asset with an alternative use to the Group and has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date;
b) where contracts are entered into for construction (to construct an asset for the customer), the Group’s performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced; and
c) where contracts are entered into to provide services (property management and facility management), the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Group’s performance as the Group performs.
Where the above criteria are not met, revenue is recognised at a point in time. Where revenue is recognised at a point of time, the Group assesses each contract with customers to determine when the performance obligation of the Group under the contract is satisfied.
Determination of transaction prices
The Group is required to determine the transaction price in respect of each of its contracts with customers. In making such judgment the Group assesses the impact of any variable consideration in the contract, due to discounts or penalties, the existence of any significant financing component and any non-cash consideration in the contract.
In determining the impact of variable consideration, the Group uses the “most-likely amount” method in IFRS 15 whereby the transaction price is determined by reference to the single most likely amount in a range of possible consideration amounts.
Transfer of control in contracts with customers
In cases where the Group determines that performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time, revenue is recognised when control over the assets is transferred to the customer or benefits of the services being provided is received and consumed by the customer. In the case of contracts to sell real estate assets this is generally when the consideration for the unit has been substantially received and there are no impediments in the handing over of the unit to the customer.
4.2 KEY SOURCES OF ESTIMATION UNCERTAINTY (extract)
Allocation of transaction price to performance obligation in contracts with customers
The Group has elected to apply the input method in allocating the transaction price to performance obligations where revenue is recognised over time. The Group considers that the use of the input method, which requires revenue recognition on the basis of the Group’s efforts to the satisfaction of performance obligation, provides the best reference of revenue actually earned. In applying the input method, the Group estimates the efforts or inputs to the satisfaction of a performance obligation. In addition to the cost of meeting contractual obligation to the customers, these estimates mainly include:
a) For development contracts, the cost of development and related infrastructure;
b) For construction contracts, the certified works as evaluated by project consultant; and
c) For services contracts, the time elapsed.