Glencore plc – Annual report – 31 December 2018
- Fair value measurements (extract)
Fair values are primarily determined using quoted market prices or standard pricing models using observable market inputs where available and are presented to reflect the expected gross future cash in/outflows. Glencore classifies the fair values of its financial instruments into a three level hierarchy based on the degree of the source and observability of the inputs that are used to derive the fair value of the financial asset or liability as follows:
Level 1 Inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that Glencore can assess at the measurement date, or
Level 2 Inputs other than quoted inputs included in Level 1 that are observable for the assets or liabilities, either directly or indirectly, or
Level 3 Unobservable inputs for the assets or liabilities, requiring Glencore to make market-based assumptions
Level 1 classifications primarily include futures with a tenor of less than one year and options that are exchange traded, whereas Level 2 classifications primarily include futures with a tenor greater than one year, over the counter options, swaps and physical forward transactions which derive their fair value primarily from exchange quotes and readily observable broker quotes. Level 3 classifications primarily include physical forward transactions which derive their fair value predominantly from models that use broker quotes and applicable market-based estimates surrounding location, quality and credit differentials and financial liabilities linked to the fair value of certain mining operations. In circumstances where Glencore cannot verify fair value with observable market inputs (Level 3 fair values), it is possible that a different valuation model could produce a materially different estimate of fair value.
It is Glencore’s policy that transactions and activities in trade related financial instruments be concluded under master netting agreements or long form confirmations to enable balances due to/from a common counterparty to be offset in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy by the counterparty.
The following tables show the fair values of the derivative financial instruments including trade related financial and physical forward purchase and sale commitments by type of contract and non-current other financial liabilities as at 31 December 2018 and 2017. Other assets and liabilities which are measured at fair value on a recurring basis are marketing inventories, other investments and cash and cash equivalents. Refer to notes 12 and 27 for disclosures in connection with these fair value measurements. There are no non-recurring fair value measurements.
Inventories of $20,564 million (2017: $24,084 million) comprise $11,449 million (2017: $15,344 million) of inventories carried at fair value less costs of disposal and $9,115 million (2017: $8,740 million) valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value. The amount of inventories and related ancillary costs recognised as an expense during the year was $196,509 million (2017: $185,371 million).
Fair value of inventories is a Level 2 fair value measurement (see note 28) using observable market prices obtained from exchanges, traded reference indices or market survey services adjusted for relevant location and quality differentials. There are no significant unobservable inputs in the fair value measurement of such inventories.
Glencore has a number of dedicated financing facilities, which finance a portion of its inventories. In each case, the inventory has not been derecognised as the Group retains the principal risks and rewards of ownership. The proceeds received are recognised as current borrowings (see note 20). As at 31 December 2018, the total amount of inventory secured under such facilities was $562 million (2017: $435 million). The proceeds received and recognised as current borrowings were $366 million (2017: $221 million) and $139 million (2017: $80 million) as non-current borrowings.
$353 million (2017: $369 million) of inventories valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value are not expected to be utilised or sold within 12 months and are therefore classified as non-current inventory.
- Accounting policies (extract)
The vast majority of inventories attributable to the marketing activities (“marketing inventories”) are valued at fair value less costs of disposal with the remainder valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value. Unrealised gains and losses from changes in fair value are reported in cost of goods sold.
Inventories held by the industrial activities (“production inventories”) are valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value. Cost is determined using the first-in-first-out (FIFO) or the weighted average method and comprises material costs, labour costs and allocated production related overhead costs. Where the production process results in more than one product being produced (joint products), cost is allocated between the various products according to the ratio of contribution of these metals to gross sales revenue. Financing and storage costs related to inventory are expensed as incurred.
Key sources of estimation uncertainty (extract)
(iv) Fair value measurements (notes 10, 11, 12, 13, 24, 25, 27 and 28)
In addition to recognising derivative instruments at fair value, as discussed below, an assessment of the fair value of assets and liabilities is also required in accounting for other transactions, most notably, business combinations and marketing inventories and disclosures related to fair values of financial assets and liabilities. In such instances, fair value measurements are estimated based on the amounts for which the assets and liabilities could be exchanged at the relevant transaction date or reporting period end, and are therefore not necessarily reflective of the cash flow upon actual settlements. Where fair value measurements cannot be derived from publicly available information, they are estimated using models and other valuation methods. To the extent possible, the assumptions and inputs used take into account externally verifiable inputs. However, such information is by nature subject to uncertainty, particularly where comparable market-based transactions often do not exist.
Derivative instruments are carried at fair value for which Glencore evaluates the quality and reliability of the assumptions and data used to measure fair value in the three hierarchy levels, Level 1, 2 and 3, as prescribed by IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement. Fair values are determined in the following ways: externally verified via comparison to quoted market prices in active markets (Level 1); by using models with externally verifiable inputs (Level 2); or by using alternative procedures such as comparison to comparable instruments and/or using models with unobservable market inputs requiring Glencore to make market-based assumptions (Level 3). Level 3 inputs therefore include the highest level of estimation uncertainty.