Diageo plc – Annual report – 30 June 2018
Industry: food and drink
- Accounting information and policies (extract)
(f) New accounting standards and interpretations (extract)
IFRS 15 – Revenue from contracts with customers provides enhanced detail on the principle of recognising revenue to reflect the concept that revenue should be recognised when the control of goods or services is transferred to the customer at a value that the company is expected to receive. It replaces the separate models for goods, services and construction contracts under previous IFRS (IAS 11, IAS 18 and related interpretations) which was based on the concept of the transfer of risks and rewards. It also provides further guidance on the initial measurement of sales on contracts which have discounts, rebates and consignment inventories by identifying separate performance obligations that may apply.
During the year ended 30 June 2017 the group carried out a detailed review of the recognition criteria for revenue applying the requirements of IFRS 15 to ensure that the same principles were being applied consistently across the group. This review in particular examined promotional and marketing support payments made to customers post the initial sale of product, the timing of the recognition of sales made where a third party manufactures or modifies a product on behalf of Diageo and consignment inventories. On application of IFRS 15 some changes in accounting policy resulted, principally in respect of variable consideration receivable where the criteria applied for deducting future promotional payments from the initial revenue recognition was more stringent than under the former accounting policy. Management have also ensured that this policy is being adopted consistently across the group. The revised accounting policy establishes that revenue is recognised to the extent that it is highly probable that a reversal in the amount of revenue recognised will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently settled. This means that Diageo, under the revised accounting policy, deducts from the initial revenue recognised any future promotional payments to direct and indirect customers unless it is highly probable that they will not be incurred.
Diageo has adopted the modified retrospective transition method, recognising the cumulative effect of initially applying IFRS15 as an adjustment to the balance of retained earnings as at 1 July 2017.
Retained earnings at 1 July 2017 has been debited by £89 million. The adjustment comprised an increase in creditors of £116 million, a decrease in debtors of £9 million, an increase in inventories of £8 million, a decrease in non-controlling interests of £2 million and an increase in deferred tax assets of £26 million. The changes in accounting policy that resulted in these adjustments are principally in respect of variable consideration where the criteria for deducting future promotional payments from the initial revenue recognition is more stringent than under the former accounting policy. The revised accounting policy establishes that revenue is recognised to the extent that it is highly probable that a reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently settled. This means that Diageo, under the new accounting policy, deducts from the initial revenue recognised any future promotional payments unless it is highly probable that they will not be incurred.
For the year ended 30 June 2018, as a result of applying the new accounting policy, sales increased by £11 million, operating profit increased by £12 million, taxation was £3 million higher and profit for the year increased by £9 million. The operating profit benefit in the year was more than offset by the impact to sales and profit of working capital efficiencies, including inventory reductions, delivered by Diageo’s customers.
Consideration was also given to the disclosure of revenue into different categories. It was determined that all revenue would be disclosed as ‘sale of goods’ as revenue from other sources was immaterial.
- Segmental information (extract)
Sales comprise revenue from contracts with customers from the sale of goods, royalties and rents receivable. Revenue from the sale of goods includes excise and other duties which the group pays as principal but excludes duties and taxes collected on behalf of third parties, such as value added tax. Sales are recognised as or when performance obligations are satisfied by transferring control of a good or service to the customer. Generally the transfer of control of goods occurs at the time of despatch but in some countries and for some customers may be on delivery. The group includes in sales the net consideration to which it expects to be entitled. Sales are recognised to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur. Therefore, sales are stated net of expected price discounts, allowances for customer loyalty and certain promotional activities and similar items. Generally, payment of the transaction price is due within credit terms that are consistent with industry practices, with no element of financing.
Net sales are sales less excise duties. Diageo incurs excise duties throughout the world. In the majority of countries excise duties are effectively a production tax which becomes payable when the product is removed from bonded premises and is not directly related to the value of sales. It is generally not included as a separate item on external invoices; increases in excise duty are not always passed on to the customer and where a customer fails to pay for product received the group cannot reclaim the excise duty. The group therefore recognises excise duty, unless it regards itself as an agent of the regulatory authorities, as a cost to the group.
Advertising costs, point of sale materials and sponsorship payments are charged to marketing in operating profit when the company has a right of access to the goods or services acquired.