IFRS 15, policies, judgements, paras 110-128 certain disclosures, construction, support services

Balfour Beatty plc – Annual report – 31 December 2019

Industry: construction; support services

2 Principal accounting policies (extract)
2.4 Revenue recognition
The Group recognises revenue when it transfers control over a product or service to its customer. Revenue is measured based on the consideration specified in a contract with a customer and excludes amounts collected on behalf of third parties. Where consideration is not specified within the contract and is therefore subject to variability, the Group estimates the amount of consideration to be received from its customer. The consideration recognised is the amount which is highly probable not to result in a significant reversal in future periods.

Where a modification to an existing contract occurs, the Group assesses the nature of the modification and whether it represents a separate performance obligation required to be satisfied by the Group or whether it is a modification to the existing performance obligation.

The Group does not expect to have any contracts where the period between the transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer and payment by the customer exceeds one year. As a consequence, the Group does not adjust its transaction price for the time value of money.

The Group’s activities are wide ranging, and as such, depending on the nature of the product or service delivered and the timing of when control is passed onto the customer, the Group will account for revenue over time and at a point in time. Where revenue is measured over time, the Group uses the input method to measure progress of delivery.

Revenue is recognised as follows:

  • revenue from construction and services activities is recognised over time and the Group uses the input method to measure progress of delivery
  • revenue from manufacturing activities is recognised at a point in time when title has passed to the customer
  • dividend income in the Parent Company is recognised when the equity holder’s right to receive payment is established.

2.5 Construction and services contracts
When the outcome of individual contracts can be estimated reliably, contract revenue is recognised by reference to the measure of progress at the reporting date using the input method. Costs are recognised as incurred and revenue is recognised on the basis of the proportion of total costs at the reporting date to the estimated total costs of the contract.

Estimates of the final out-turn on each contract may include cost contingencies to take account of the specific risks within each contract that have been identified during the early stages of the contract. The cost contingencies are reviewed on a regular basis throughout the contract life and are adjusted where appropriate. However, the nature of the risks on contracts are such that they often cannot be resolved until the end of the project and therefore may not reverse until the end of the project. The estimated final out-turns on contracts are continuously reviewed, and in certain limited cases, recoveries from insurers are assessed, and adjustments made where necessary.

No margin is recognised until the outcome of the contract can be estimated with reasonable certainty. Provision is made for all known or expected losses on individual contracts once such losses are foreseen.

Revenue in respect of variations to contracts and incentive payments is recognised when there is an enforceable right to payment and it is highly probable it will be agreed by the customer. Revenue in respect of claims is recognised only if it is highly probable not to reverse in future periods. Profit for the year includes the benefit of claims settled in the year to the extent not previously recognised on contracts completed in previous years.

2.7 Pre-contract bid costs and recoveries
Pre-contract costs are expensed as incurred until the contract is awarded, from which time further pre-contract costs are recognised as an asset and charged as an expense over the period of the contract. Amounts recovered in respect of pre-contract costs that have been written off are recognised in full in the income statement when they are received in cash.

For construction and services projects, the relevant contract is the construction or services contract respectively. With respect to PPP projects, an assessment is made as to which contractual element the pre-contract costs relate to, in order to determine the relevant period for amortisation. The relevant contract is that which gives rise to a financial or intangible asset, which is either the construction contract or the contract which transferred the asset to the project.

2.27 Judgements and key sources of estimation uncertainty (extract)
a) Revenue and margin recognition
The Group’s revenue recognition and margin recognition policies, which are set out in Notes 2.4 and 2.5, are central to how the Group values the work it has carried out in each financial year.

These policies require forecasts to be made of the outcomes of long-term construction services and support services contracts, which require both estimates and judgements to be made of both cost and income recognition on each contract. On the cost side, estimates of forecasts are made on the final out-turn of each contract in addition to potential costs to be incurred for any maintenance and defects liabilities. On the income side, estimates and judgements are made on variations to consideration which typically include variations due to changes in scope of work, recoveries of claim income from customers, and potential liquidated damages that may be levied by the customer. The Group’s estimates also include assessments of recoveries from insurers. Judgements and estimates are reviewed regularly throughout the contract life based on latest available information and adjustments are made where necessary.

In the construction portfolio there are a small number of long-term and complex projects where the Group has incorporated judgements over contractual entitlements. The range of potential outcomes as a result of uncertain future events could result in a materially positive or negative swing to profitability and cash flow. These contracts are primarily within the Group’s major infrastructure business units in the UK, US and Gammon.

4 Revenue
4.1 Nature and services of goods
4.1.1 Construction Services
The Group’s Construction Services segment encompasses activities in relation to the physical construction of assets provided to public and private customers. Revenue generated in this segment is measured over time as control passes to the customer as the asset is constructed. Progress is measured by reference to the cost incurred on the contract to date compared to the contract’s end of job forecast (the input method). Payment terms are based on a schedule of value that is set out in the contract and fairly reflect the timing and performance of service delivery. Contracts with customers are typically accounted for as one performance obligation (PO).


4.1.2 Support Services
The Group’s work in this segment supports existing assets through maintaining, upgrading and managing services across utilities and infrastructure assets. Revenue generated in this segment is measured over time as control passes to the customer as and when services are provided. Progress is measured by reference to the cost incurred on the contract to date compared to the contract’s end of job forecast (the input method). Payments are structured as milestone payments set out in the respective contracts.


4.1.3 Infrastructure Investments
The Group invests directly in a variety of assets, predominantly consisting of infrastructure assets where there are opportunities to manage the asset upon completion of construction. The Group also invests in real estate type assets, in particular private residential and student accommodation assets. Revenue generated in this segment is from the provision of construction, maintenance and management services and also from the recognition of rental income. The Group’s strategy is to hold these assets until optimal values are achieved through disposal of mature assets.


4.2 Disaggregation of revenue
The Group presents a disaggregation of its underlying revenue according to the primary geographical markets in which the Group operates as well as the types of assets serviced by the Group. The nature of the various services provided by the Group is explained in Note 4.1.

This disaggregation of underlying revenue is also presented according to the Group’s reportable segments as described in Note 5.


  • Includes rental income of £27m including share of joint ventures and associates or £13m excluding share of joint ventures and associates.


  • Includes rental income of £32m including share of joint ventures and associates or £18m excluding share of joint ventures and associates.

4.3 Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations (excluding joint ventures and associates)


The total transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations represents the contracted revenue to be earned by the Group for distinct goods and services which the Group has promised to deliver to its customers. These include promises which are partially satisfied at the period end or those which are unsatisfied but which the Group has committed to providing. In deriving this transaction price, any element of variable revenue is estimated at a value that is highly probable not to reverse in the future.

The transaction price above does not include any estimated revenue to be earned on framework contracts for which a firm order or instruction has not been received by the customer.

23 Contract balances
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collection results in trade receivables (billed amounts), contract assets (unbilled amounts) and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the Group’s balance sheet. For services in which revenue is earned over time, amounts are billed in accordance with contractual terms, either at periodic intervals or upon achievement of contractual milestones. The timing of revenue recognition is measured in accordance with the progress of delivery on a contract which could either be in advance or in arrears of billing, resulting in either a contract asset or a contract liability.


The amount of revenue recognised in 2019 from performance obligations satisfied (or partially satisfied) in previous periods amounted to £27m (2018: £45m).

24 Trade and other receivables (extract)


∞ Re-presented to show Contract fulfilment assets separately from Other receivables.