VINCI – Annual report – 31 December 2021
Industry: utilities. concessions, construction
F. Concessions: PPP contracts, concession contracts and other infrastructure
Under the terms of IFRIC 12 “Service Concession Arrangements”, a concession operator may have two types of activities:
- a construction activity in respect of its obligations to design, build and finance new infrastructure to be constructed on behalf of the grantor;
- an operating and maintenance activity in respect of concession assets.
Revenue from each activity is recognised in accordance with IFRS 15.
In return for its activities, the operator receives remuneration from either of two actors:
- Users, in which case the intangible asset model applies. The operator has a right to receive tolls (or any other form of remuneration) from users (vehicles, airlines, etc.) depending on traffic levels in consideration for the financing, construction and operation of the infrastructure. The intangible asset model also applies whenever the concession grantor remunerates the concession operator based on the extent of use of the infrastructure by users, but with no guarantees as to the amounts that will be paid to it (under “pass through” or “shadow toll” agreements).
Under this model, the right to receive toll payments (or any other form of remuneration), net of any investment grants received, is recognised in the concession operator’s balance sheet under “Concession intangible assets”. This right corresponds to the fair value of the asset under concession plus the borrowing costs capitalised during the construction phase. It is amortised over the term of the arrangement in a manner that reflects the pattern in which the economic benefit derived from the concession asset is consumed by the entity, starting from the entry into service of the asset.
The intangible asset model applies to most infrastructure concessions, in particular the concessions of VINCI Autoroutes in France, the main airports managed by VINCI Airports, certain bridges, and Cobra IS’s concessions.
Motorway concession companies generally use the straight-line method of amortisation for concession intangible assets. With respect to rights to operate airports under concession, the Group opted to amortise them from 1 July 2020 using the unit of production method, based on passenger numbers, as it took the view that the straight-line method no longer reflected the rate at which the economic benefits produced by concession assets were being consumed.
- The grantor, in which case the financial asset model applies. The operator has an unconditional contractual right to receive payments from the concession grantor, irrespective of the amount of use made of the infrastructure.
Under this model, the operator recognises a financial receivable, attracting interest, in its balance sheet, in consideration for the services it provides (design and construction). This financial receivable is classified under “Other financial assets”. The receivable is settled by means of the grantor’s payments received. The income calculated on the basis of the effective interest rate is recognised under revenue from ancillary activities.
In the case of bifurcated models, the operator may be remunerated partly by users and partly by the grantor. The part of the investment that is covered by an unconditional contractual right to receive payments from the grantor (in the form of grants or rental) is recognised as a financial receivable up to the amount guaranteed. The unguaranteed balance, of which the amount is dependent on the extent of use of the infrastructure, is recognised under “Concession intangible assets”.
VINCI Airports owns certain airports including London Gatwick airport, which was acquired on 13 May 2019. Its rights to operate these airports are presented in Note H.17.1, “Other intangible assets”.
2. Breakdown of revenue by geographical area (extract)
The Group’s consolidated revenue corresponds to revenue from the Concessions, Energy and Construction businesses and from the VINCI Immobilier business line.
IFRS 15 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” requires entities to identify each contract as well as the various performance obligations contained in the contract. The number of performance obligations depends on the types of contracts and activities. Most of the Group’s contracts involve only one performance obligation.
Under IFRS 15, recognition of revenue must reflect the following:
- the rate at which performance obligations are fulfilled, corresponding to the transfer to the customer of control of a good or service;
- the amount to which the seller expects to be entitled as consideration for its activities.
The way in which transfer of control of a good or service is analysed is crucial, since that transfer determines the recognition of revenue. The transfer of control of a good or service may take place continuously (revenue recognition on a progress towards completion basis) or on a specific date that corresponds to the completion of works.
Revenue from concession contracts consists of the following:
- tolls for the use of motorway infrastructure operated under concession, revenue from airport service concessions, and ancillary income such as fees from commercial installations, rental of telecommunications infrastructure and advertising space;
- revenue in respect of the construction of new infrastructure under concession and recognised on a progress towards completion basis.
Consolidated revenue of the VINCI Energies and VINCI Construction business lines comprises the total of the work, goods and services generated by the consolidated subsidiaries pursuing their main activity and the revenue for the construction of infrastructure under concession.
In the property sector, revenue arising on lots sold is recognised as the property development proceeds, in accordance with IFRS 15 and statutory provisions relating to off-plan sales. In that respect, to measure progress towards completion of works, VINCI Immobilier uses the cost-based method. The cost of land is included in the progress towards completion calculation at the commencement of each contract.
Revenue from ancillary activities mainly relates to revenue from leases, sales of equipment, materials and merchandise, study work and fees.
The method for recognising revenue under concession contracts is explained in Note F, “Concessions: PPP contracts, concession contracts and other infrastructure”. The method for recognising revenue from construction and service contracts is explained in Note G.16, “Information on construction and service contracts”.
G. VINCI Energies, Cobra IS, VINCI Construction and VINCI Immobilier: construction and service contracts (extract)
16. Information on construction and service contracts
Consolidated revenue relating to construction and service contracts is recognised in accordance with IFRS 15.
In view of the Group’s main activities, construction and service contracts generally involve only one performance obligation, which is fulfilled as the contract is completed.
Where a contract includes several distinct performance obligations, the Group allocates the overall price provided for by the contract between the performance obligations in accordance with IFRS 15.
Where the price to which the Group considers itself entitled includes a variable component, that component is recognised where its receipt is regarded as highly probable.
Progress with construction and service contracts is measured using either the physical progress towards completion or cost-to-cost method, depending on the type of activities involved.
Contract amendments, relating in particular to the price and/or scope of the contract, are recognised when approved by the client. If amendments relate to new goods or services regarded as distinct under IFRS 15, and if the contract price increases by an amount reflecting “stand-alone selling prices” of the additional goods or services, those amendments are recognised as a distinct contract.
Where a third party (such as a subcontractor) is involved in the supply of a distinct good or service, the Group must determine whether it obtains control of that good or service before it is transferred to the client. Where control is obtained before transfer to the client, the Group recognises as revenue the gross amount to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for the corresponding good or service. However, where control is not obtained, the Group takes the view that it is not the principal in the transaction and only recognises as revenue the amount corresponding to its remuneration as intermediary.
The Group’s trade receivables represent the unconditional right to receive payment when the goods or services to be provided to the customer under the contract have been provided. In accordance with IFRS 15, the opening and closing balances of trade receivables are presented in Note H.19, “Working capital requirement and current provisions”.
Contract assets correspond to invoices not yet raised, advances paid to subcontractors or retention payments. They are included in the “Trade and other receivables” item on the asset side of the consolidated balance sheet. In accordance with IFRS 9, contract assets are analysed to assess any risk of non-recovery (“credit risk”). Contract liabilities mainly consist of advances received and prepaid income. They are included in the “Other current liabilities” item on the liabilities side of the consolidated balance sheet.
Where a payment due to the Group is dependent on the transfer of other goods or services and/or the completion of milestones or stages defined in the contract, the Group regards the amount representing that “conditional” right as a contract asset.
Amounts relating to any Group obligation to transfer goods or services for which it has already received a payment, or for which the right to such payment is enforceable, are regarded as contract liabilities under IFRS 15.
If the estimate of the final outcome of a contract indicates a loss, a provision is made for the loss on completion in accordance with IAS 37, regardless of progress towards completion, and based on the best estimates of income, including, if need be, any rights to additional revenue or claims, where it is regarded as highly probable and can be reliably estimated. Provisions for losses on completion are shown under liabilities (see Note H.19.3, “Breakdown of current provisions”).
19.3 Breakdown of current provisions (extract)
Current provisions are directly related to the operating cycle. They are recognised in accordance with IAS 37 and include the part at less than one year of non-current provisions not directly linked to the operating cycle.
These provisions are recognised at their present value. The effect of discounting provisions is recognised under “Other financial income and expense”.
Provisions are taken for contractual obligations to maintain the condition of concession assets. They concern the motorway concession companies and cover the expense of major repairs of roads, bridges, tunnels and hydraulic infrastructure. They also include expenses to be incurred by airport concession companies (repairs to runways, traffic lanes and other paved surfaces) and are calculated on the basis of maintenance expense plans spanning several years, which are updated annually. These expenses are reassessed on the basis of appropriate indexes (mainly the TP01, TP02 and TP09 indexes in France). Provisions are also taken whenever signs of defects are encountered on certain infrastructure.
Provisions for after-sales service cover Group entities’ commitments under statutory warranties relating to completed projects, such as the 10-year warranty on building projects in France. They are estimated statistically on the basis of expenses incurred in previous years or individually on the basis of specifically identified events.
Provisions for losses on completion of contracts and for construction project liabilities are set aside mainly when end-of-contract projections, based on the most likely estimated outcome, indicate a loss, or to cover work yet to be carried out in respect of completed projects under completion warranties.
Provisions for disputes connected with operations relate mainly to disputes with customers, subcontractors, joint contractors or suppliers.
Restructuring provisions include the cost of plans and measures for which there is a commitment whenever these have been announced before the period end.