Bombardier Inc. – Half year report – 30 June 2017
NOTES TO THE INTERIM CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (extracts)
- FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The classification of financial instruments and their carrying amounts and fair values were as follows, as at:
(1) Financial assets are classified as L&R and financial liabilities as other than HFT.
(2) Includes the current portion of long-term debt.
n/a: Not applicable
- FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Fair value amounts disclosed in these consolidated financial statements represent the Corporation’s estimate of the price at which a financial instrument could be exchanged in a market in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties who are under no compulsion to act. They are point-in-time estimates that may change in subsequent reporting periods due to market conditions or other factors. Fair value is determined by reference to quoted prices in the principal market for that instrument to which the Corporation has immediate access. However, there is no active market for most of the Corporation’s financial instruments. In the absence of an active market, the Corporation determines fair value based on internal or external valuation models, such as stochastic models, option-pricing models and discounted cash flow models. Fair value determined using valuation models requires the use of assumptions concerning the amount and timing of estimated future cash flows, discount rates, the creditworthiness of the borrower, the aircraft’s expected future value, default probability, generic industrial bond spreads and marketability risk. In determining these assumptions, the Corporation uses primarily external, readily observable market inputs, including factors such as interest rates, credit ratings, credit spreads, default probabilities, currency rates, and price and rate volatilities, as applicable. Assumptions or inputs that are not based on observable market data are used when external data are unavailable. These calculations represent management’s best estimates. Since they are based on estimates, the fair values may not be realized in an actual sale or immediate settlement of the instruments.
Methods and assumptions
The methods and assumptions used to measure fair value for items recorded at FVTP&L and AFS are as follows:
Aircraft loans and lease receivables and investments in financing structures – The Corporation uses an internal valuation model based on stochastic simulations and discounted cash flow analysis to estimate fair value. Fair value is calculated using market data for interest rates, published credit ratings when available, yield curves and default probabilities. The Corporation uses market data to determine the marketability adjustments and also uses internal assumptions to take into account factors that market participants would consider when pricing these financial assets. The Corporation also uses internal assumptions to determine the credit risk of customers without published credit rating. In addition, the Corporation uses aircraft residual value curves reflecting specific factors of the current aircraft market and a balanced market in the medium and long term.
Investments in securities – The Corporation uses discounted cash flow models to estimate the fair value of unquoted investments in fixed-income securities, using market data such as interest-rate.
Lease subsidies – The Corporation uses an internal valuation model based on stochastic simulations to estimate fair value of lease subsidies incurred in connection with the sale of commercial aircraft. Fair value is calculated using market data for interest rates, published credit ratings when available, default probabilities from rating agencies and the Corporation’s credit spread. The Corporation also uses internal assumptions to determine the credit risk of customers without published credit rating.
Derivative financial instruments – Fair value of derivative financial instruments generally reflects the estimated amounts that the Corporation would receive to sell favourable contracts i.e. taking into consideration the counterparty credit risk, or pays to transfer unfavourable contracts i.e. taking into consideration the Corporation’s credit risk, at the reporting dates. The Corporation uses discounted cash flow analyses and market data such as interest rates, credit spreads and foreign exchange spot rate to estimate the fair value of forward agreements and interest-rate derivatives.
The Corporation uses option-pricing models and discounted cash flow models to estimate the fair value of embedded derivatives using applicable market data.
The Corporation uses an internal valuation model based on stochastic simulations to estimate the fair value of the conversion option embedded in the BT Holdco convertible shares. The fair value of the embedded conversion option is based on the difference in value between: the convertible shares’ accrued liquidation preference based on the minimum return entitlement; and the fair value of the common shares on an as converted basis. This value is dependent on the Transportation segment meeting the performance incentives agreed upon with the CDPQ, the timing of exercise of the conversion rights and the applicable conversion rate. The simulation model generates multiple Transportation performance scenarios over the expected term of the option. Fair value of the shares on an as converted basis is calculated using an EBIT multiple, which is based on market data, to determine the enterprise value. The discount rate used is also determined using market data. The Corporation uses internal assumptions to determine the term of the instrument and the future performance of the Transportation segment.
The methods and assumptions used to measure fair value for items recorded at amortized cost are as follows:
Financial instruments whose carrying value approximates fair value – The fair values of trade and other receivables, certain aircraft loans and lease receivables, certain investments in securities, certain investments in financing structures, restricted cash, trade and other payables, short-term borrowings and sales and leaseback obligations measured at amortized cost, approximate their carrying value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments, because they bear variable interest-rate or because the terms and conditions are comparable to current market terms and conditions for similar items.
Long-term contract receivables – The Corporation uses discounted cash flow analyses to estimate the fair value using market data for interest rates.
Long-term debt – The fair value of long-term debt is estimated using public quotations, when available, or discounted cash flow analyses, based on the current corresponding borrowing rate for similar types of borrowing arrangements.
Government refundable advances and vendor non-recurring costs – The Corporation uses discounted cash flow analyses to estimate the fair value using market data for interest rates and credit spreads.
Fair value hierarchy
The following tables present financial assets and financial liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis categorized using the fair value hierarchy as follows:
- quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1);
- inputs from observable markets other than quoted prices included in Level 1, including indirectly observable data (Level 2); and
- inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (Level 3).
Assessing the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment. The fair value of financial assets and liabilities by level of hierarchy was as follows, as at June 30, 2017:
(1) Derivative financial instruments consist of forward foreign exchange contracts, interest-rate swap agreements and embedded derivatives.
(2) Excludes $14 million of AFS investments carried at cost.
Changes in the fair value of Level 3 financial instruments were as follows, for the three- and six-month periods ended:
(1) Of which nil and $1 million represents realized gains for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2017, which are recorded in financing income ($1 million and $2 million represents realized gains for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2016, which are recorded in financing income).
Main assumptions developed internally for Level 3 hierarchy
When measuring Level 3 financial instruments at fair value, some assumptions are not derived from an observable market. The main assumptions developed internally for aerospace segments’ level 3 financial instruments relate to credit risks of customers without published credit rating and marketability adjustments to discount rates specific to our financial assets.
These main assumptions are as follows as at June 30, 2017:
Also, aircraft residual value curves are important inputs in assessing the fair value of certain financial instruments. These curves are prepared by management based on information obtained from external appraisals and reflect specific factors of the current aircraft market and a balanced market in the medium and long term.
The projected future performance of the Transportation segment is an important input for the determination of the fair value of the embedded derivative option in the convertible shares issued to the CDPQ. The projected future performance of the Transportation segment is prepared by management based on budget and strategic plan.
Sensitivity to selected changes of assumptions for Level 3 hierarchy
These assumptions, not derived from an observable market, are established by management using estimates and judgments that can have a significant effect on revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities. Changing one or more of these assumptions to other reasonably possible alternative assumptions, for which the impact on their fair value would be significant, would change their fair value as follows as at June 30, 2017:
n/a: not applicable
A 5% decrease in the expected future performance of the Transportation segment would have resulted in a decrease in the fair value with a corresponding gain recognized in EBT for the six-month period ended June 30, 2017 of $16 million.
A 5% increase in the expected future performance of the Transportation segment would have resulted in an increase in the fair value with a corresponding loss recognized in EBT for the six-month period ended June 30, 2017 of $24 million.