Jaguar Land Rover Automotive plc – Annual report – 31 March 2021
2 Accounting policies (extract)
Revenue comprises the consideration earned by the Group in respect of the output of its ordinary activities. It is measured based on the contract price, which is the consideration specified in the contract with the customer and excludes amounts collected on behalf of third parties, and net of settlement discounts, bonuses, rebates and sales incentives. The Group’s primary customers from the sale of vehicles, parts and accessories are retailers, fleet and corporate customers, and other third-party distributors. The Group recognises revenue when it transfers control of a good or service to a customer, thus evidencing the satisfaction of the associated performance obligation under that contract.
As described in note 38, the Group operates with a single automotive reporting segment, principally generating revenue from the sales of vehicles, parts and accessories.
The sale of vehicles also can include additional services provided to the customer at the point of sale, for which the vehicle and services are accounted for as separate performance obligations, as they are considered separately identifiable. The contract transaction price is allocated among the identified performance obligations based on their stand-alone selling prices. Where the stand-alone selling price is not readily observable, it is estimated using an appropriate alternative approach.
Use of estimates and judgements (extract)
Revenue recognition: The Group uses judgement to determine when control of its goods, primarily vehicles and parts, pass to the customer. This is assessed with reference to indicators of control, including the risks and rewards of ownership and legal title with reference to the underlying terms of the customer contract. Refer to ‘Revenue recognition’ page 62 for further information.
Other estimates (extract)
Product warranties: refer to page 68 (warranty provisions) for further information.
Variable marketing expense: refer to page 63 (sales incentives) for further information.
Provisions (page 68)
A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. When the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows using a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.
Provisions are held for product warranty, legal and product liabilities, residual risks, environmental liabilities, other employee benefit obligations and restructuring as detailed in note 28 to the consolidated financial statements.
The Group provides product warranties on all new vehicle sales. Provisions are generally recognised when vehicles are sold or when new warranty programmes are initiated. Based on historical warranty claim experience, assumptions have to be made on the type and extent of future warranty claims and customer goodwill (representing the Group’s constructive obligation to its customers when managing those warranty claims), as well as on possible recall campaigns. These assessments are based on experience of the frequency and extent of vehicle faults and defects in the past. In addition, the estimates also include assumptions on the amounts of potential repair costs per vehicle and the effects of possible time or mileage limits. The provisions are regularly adjusted to reflect new information.
The Group also has back-to-back contractual arrangements with its suppliers in the event that a vehicle fault is proven to be a supplier’s fault. Estimates are made of the expected reimbursement claims based upon historical levels of recoveries by supplier, adjusted for inflation and applied to the population of vehicles under warranty at the balance sheet date. Supplier reimbursement claims are presented as separate assets within “Other financial assets” in note 18.
The Group notes that changes in the automotive environment regarding the increasing impact of battery electric vehicles presents its own significant challenges, particularly due to the lack of historical data available at this time to help inform estimates for future warranty claims, as well as any associated recoveries from suppliers due to such claims. The related provisions are therefore made with the Group’s best estimate at this time to settle such obligations in the future but will be required to be continually refined as sufficient, real-world data becomes available. Supplier recoveries are recognised only when the Group considers there to be virtual certainty over the reimbursement, which also requires historical evidence to support.