IFRS 16 adopted, modified retrospective, policies, disclosures, restoration and maintenance, airline

International Consolidated Airlines Group, S.A. – Annual report – 31 December 2019

Industry: airline

2 Significant accounting policies (extracts)
Changes in accounting policies (extract)
The Group has applied IFRS 16 ‘Leases’ and IFRIC 23 ‘Uncertainty over tax treatments’ for the first time for the year to December 31, 2019. There has been no impact arising from the application of IFRIC 23. Further details on the impact of IFRS 16 on the Group accounting policies, financial position and performance are provided in note 33.

Property, plant and equipment (extract)
d Leases
The Group leases various aircraft, properties and equipment. The lease terms of these assets are consistent with the determined useful economic life of similar assets within property, plant and equipment.

The Group has applied IFRS 16 using the modified retrospective approach and therefore the comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under IAS 17 and IFRIC 4. The details of accounting policies under IAS 17 and IFRIC 4 are disclosed separately if they are different from those under IFRS 16 and the impact of changes is discussed in note 33.

Policy applicable from January 1, 2019
At inception of a contract, the Group assesses whether a contract is, or contains a lease. A contract is or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

Leases are recognised as a ROU asset and a corresponding lease liability at the date at which the leased asset is available for use by the Group.

Right of use assets
At the lease commencement date a ROU asset is measured at cost comprising the following: the amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability; any lease payments made at or before the commencement date less any lease incentives received; any initial direct costs; and restoration costs to return the asset to its original condition.

The ROU asset is depreciated over the shorter of the asset’s useful life and the lease term on a straight-line basis. If ownership of the ROU asset transfers to the Group at the end of the lease term or the cost reflects the exercise of a purchase option, depreciation is calculated using the estimated useful life of the asset.

Lease liabilities
Lease liabilities are initially measured at their present value, which includes the following lease payments: fixed payments (including in-substance fixed payments), less any lease incentives receivable; variable lease payments that are based on an index or a rate; amounts expected to be payable by the Group under residual value guarantees; the exercise price of a purchase option if the Group is reasonably certain to exercise that option; payments of penalties for terminating the lease, if the lease term reflects the Group exercising that option; and payments to be made under reasonably certain extension options.

The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease. If that rate cannot be determined, the Group entity’s incremental borrowing rate is used.

Each lease payment is allocated between the principal and finance cost. The finance cost is charged to the Income statement over the lease period so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the lease liability for each period. After the commencement date, the amount of lease liabilities is increased to reflect the accretion of interest and reduced for the lease payments made.

The Group has elected not to recognise ROU assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less and those leases of low-value assets. Payments associated with short-term leases and leases of low-value assets are recognised on a straight line basis as an expense in the Income statement. Short-term leases are leases with a lease term of 12 months or less, that do not contain a purchase option. Low-value assets comprise IT equipment and small items of office furniture.

The Group is exposed to potential future increases in variable lease payments based on an index or rate, which are not included in the lease liability until they take effect. When adjustments to lease payments based on an index or rate take effect, the lease liability is reassessed and adjusted against the ROU asset. Extension options are included in a number of aircraft, property and equipment leases across the Group and are reflected in the lease payments where the Group is reasonably certain that it will exercise the option.

The Group regularly uses sale and lease transactions to finance the acquisition of aircraft. Each transaction is assessed as to whether it meets the criteria within IFRS 15 ‘Revenue from contracts with customers’ for a sale to have occurred. If a sale has occurred, then the associated asset is de-recognised and a ROU asset and lease liability is recognised. The ROU asset recognised is based on the proportion of the previous carrying amount of the asset that is retained. Any gain or loss is restricted to the amount that relates to the rights that have been transferred to the counter-party to the transaction. Where a sale has not occurred, the asset is retained on the balance sheet within Property, plant and equipment and an asset financed liability recognised equal to the financing proceeds.

Under the transitional requirements of IFRS 16 applying the modified retrospective method, the assets and liabilities on all finance leases prior to January 1, 2019 were transferred into ROU assets and associated lease liabilities. From January 1, 2019 onwards, those new financing arrangements with the following features that do not meet the recognition criteria as a sale under IFRS 15 are therefore not eligible for recognition under IFRS 16: the lessor has legal ownership retention as security against repayment and interest obligations; the Group initially acquired the aircraft or took a major share in the acquisition process from the manufacturer; in view of the contractual conditions, it is virtually certain that the aircraft will be purchased at the end of the lease term. Where new financing arrangements do not meet these recognition criteria due to the fact they are ‘in substance purchases’ and not leases, the related liability is recognised as an asset financed liability and the assets as an owned asset within Property, plant and equipment.

Policy applicable before January 1, 2019
Where assets are financed through finance leases, under which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group, the assets are treated as if they had been purchased outright. The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment represents the aggregate of the capital elements payable during the lease term. The corresponding obligation, reduced by the appropriate proportion of lease payments made, is included in borrowings.

The amount included in the cost of Property, plant and equipment is depreciated on the basis described in the preceding paragraphs on fleet and the interest element of lease payments made is included as an interest expense in the Income statement.

Total minimum payments, measured at inception, under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the Income statement in equal annual amounts over the period of the lease. In respect of aircraft, certain operating lease arrangements allow the Group to terminate the leases after a limited initial period, without further material financial obligations. In certain cases, the Group is entitled to extend the initial lease period on predetermined terms; such leases are described as
extendable operating leases.

In determining the appropriate lease classification, the substance of the transaction rather than the form is considered. Factors considered include but are not limited to the following: whether the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the Group by the end of the lease term; the Group has the option to purchase the asset at the price that is sufficiently lower than the fair value on exercise date; the lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset; and the present value of the minimum lease payments amounts to at least substantially all of the fair value of the leased asset.

Critical accounting estimates, assumptions and judgements (extract)
a Engineering and other aircraft costs
At December 31, 2019, the Group recognised €1,675 million in respect of maintenance, restoration and handback provisions (2018: €1,359 million). Information on movements on the provision is disclosed in note 24.

The Group has a number of contracts with service providers to replace or repair engine parts and for other maintenance checks. These agreements are complex and generally cover a number of years. The Group exercises judgement in determining the assumptions used to match the consumption of replacement spares and other costs associated with fleet maintenance with the appropriate income statement charge. Aircraft maintenance obligations are based on aircraft utilisation, expected maintenance intervals, future maintenance costs and the aircraft’s condition.

b Determining the lease term of contracts with renewal and termination options
The Group determines the lease term as the non-cancellable term of the lease, together with any periods covered by an option to extend the lease if it is reasonably certain to be exercised, or any periods covered by an option to terminate the lease, if it is reasonably certain not to be exercised. The Group applies judgement in evaluating whether it is reasonably certain whether or not to exercise the option to renew or terminate the lease. Such judgement includes consideration of fleet plans which underpin
approved business plans and historic experience regarding the extension of leases. After the commencement date, the Group reassesses the lease term if there is a significant event or change in circumstances and affects the Groups ability to exercise or not to exercise the option to renew or to terminate. Further information is given in note 13.

13 Leases
a Amounts recognised in the Consolidated balance sheet
Property, plant and equipment includes the following amounts relating to right of use assets


1 The net book value of ROU assets recognised at January 1, 2019 includes €5,767 million in respect of assets previously leased through finance leases before the adoption of IFRS 16 (split between €7,793 million at cost and €2,026 million of accumulated depreciation). In 2018 the Group recognised lease assets and lease liabilities in relation to leases that were classified as ‘finance leases’ under IAS 17 ‘leases’. The assets were presented in property, plant and equipment and the lease liabilities in the Group’s long-term borrowings.
2 Amounts with a net book value of €187 million were reclassified from ROU assets to Owned Property, plant and equipment at the cessation of the respective leases.

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings includes the following amounts relating to lease liabilities:


c Amounts recognised in the Consolidated cash flow statement
The Group had total cash outflows for leases of €2,057 million in 2019.

The Group is exposed to future cash outflows (on an undiscounted basis) as at December 31, 2019, for which no amount has been recognised in relation to leases not yet commenced to which the Group is committed of €787 million.

d Maturity profile of the lease liabilities
The maturity profile of the lease liabilities is disclosed in note 25e.

e Operating lease commitments
From January 1, 2019, the Group has recognised ROU assets and lease liabilities for the leases it has entered into (except for short-term and low-value leases) and accordingly no longer presents operating lease commitments. Having applied the modified retrospective approach to the implementation of IFRS 16, the Group has continued to present the comparative financial information for the aggregate payments, for which there were commitments under operating leases as follows as at December 31:


f Obligations under financing leases
On implementation of IFRS 16, those leases previously recognised as finance leases were reclassified to ROU assets and lease liabilities and are included in section (a) above. Accordingly, the Group no longer presents obligations under finance leases. Having applied the modified retrospective approach to the implementation of IFRS 16, the Group has continued to present the comparative financial information for the aggregate payments, for which there are future minimum lease payments as follows


g Extension options
The Group has certain leases which contain extension options exercisable by the Group prior to the non-cancellable contract period. Where practicable, the Group seeks to include extension options in new leases to provide operational flexibility. The Group assesses at lease commencement whether it is reasonably certain to exercise the extension options.

The Group is exposed to future cash outflows (on an undiscounted basis) as at December 31, 2019, for which no amount has been recognised, for potential extension options of €871 million due to it not being reasonably certain that these leases will be extended.

24 Provisions (extract)


Restoration and handback provisions
The provision for restoration and handback costs is maintained to meet the contractual maintenance and return conditions on aircraft held under lease. The provision also includes an amount relating to leased land and buildings where restoration costs are contractually required at the end of the lease. Such costs are capitalised within ROU assets. The provision is long-term in nature, typically covering the leased asset term, which for aircraft is up to 12 years.

25 Financial risk management objectives and policies (extract)
e Liquidity risk (extract)
The following table analyses the Group’s (outflows) and inflows in respect of financial liabilities and derivative financial instruments into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period at December 31 to the contractual maturity date. The amounts disclosed in the table are the contractual undiscounted cash flows and include interest.


33 Changes to accounting policies (extract)
New accounting policy
IFRS 16 ‘Leases’ was adopted by the Group on January 1, 2019. The new standard eliminates the classification of leases as either operating leases or finance leases and introduces a single lessee accounting model.

The Group used the modified retrospective transition approach on application of IFRS 16. Lease liabilities were determined based on the value of the remaining lease payments, discounted by the appropriate incremental borrowing rates and translated at the rates of exchange at the date of transition (January 1, 2019). ROU assets in respect of aircraft were measured as if IFRS 16 had been applied at the commencement date of each lease using the appropriate incremental borrowing rates at the date of transition and rates of exchange at the commencement of each lease and depreciated to January 1, 2019. Other ROU assets were measured based on the related lease liability as at the date of transition, adjusted for prepaid or accrued lease payments. Deferred gains on sale and operating leasebacks, previously recognised in current and non-current liabilities, were reclassified to the related ROU asset. IFRS 16 does not permit comparative information to be restated if the modified retrospective transition approach is used.

The details of the changes in accounting policy are disclosed below:
1. Interest-bearing borrowings and non-current assets increased on implementation of the standard as obligations to make future payments under leases previously classified as operating leases were recognised on the Balance sheet, along with the related ROU asset. The Group has used the practical expedients in respect of leases of less than 12 months duration and leases for low value items and excluded them from the scope of IFRS 16. Rental payments associated with these leases are recognised in the Income statement on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease. No adjustment has been made to the recognition and measurement of assets previously recognised as ‘finance leases’ under IAS 17 which were transferred to ROU assets on adoption of IFRS 16, with the related borrowings transferred to lease liabilities.
2. Expenditure on operations has decreased and finance costs have increased, as operating lease costs have been replaced by depreciation and lease interest expense.
3. The adoption of IFRS 16 required the Group to make a number of judgements, estimates and assumptions. These included:
• The estimated lease term – The term of each lease was based on the original lease term unless management was ‘reasonably certain’ to exercise options to extend the lease. Further information used to determine the appropriate lease term included fleet plans which underpin approved business plans, and historic experience regarding extension options.
• The discount rate used to determine the lease liability – The rates used on transition to discount future lease payments were the Group’s incremental borrowing rates. These rates have been calculated for each airline, reflecting the underlying lease terms and based on observable inputs. The risk-free rate component was based on LIBOR rates available in the same currency and over the same term as the lease and was adjusted for credit risk. For future aircraft lease obligations, the Group will use the interest rate implicit in the lease.
• Terminal arrangements – The Group has reviewed its arrangements at airport terminals to determine whether any agreements previously considered to be service agreements should be classified as leases. No additional leases have been identified.
• Restoration obligations – The Group has certain obligations associated with the maintenance condition of its aircraft on redelivery to the lessor, such as the requirement to complete a final airframe check, repaint the aircraft and reconfigure the cabin. Under IAS 17 these costs were recognised as a maintenance expense over the lease term. On adoption of IFRS 16, they were recognised as part of the ROU asset on transition, resulting in an increase in restoration and handback provisions. Judgement has been used to identify the appropriate obligations and estimation has been used (based on observable data) to measure them. Other maintenance obligations associated with these assets, comprising obligations that arise as the aircraft is utilised, such as engine overhauls and periodic airframe checks, are recognised as a maintenance expense over the lease term.

The above adjustments resulted in a post-tax charge to equity of €550 million.

Foreign currency balances on lease obligations, which are predominantly denominated in US dollars, are remeasured at each balance sheet date, with the ROU asset recognised at the historic exchange rate. The Group manages foreign exchange risk arising on these US dollar obligations as part of its risk management strategy as described further in note 25.

The Group recognised the following assets and liabilities on the Consolidated balance sheet at January 1, 2019 on adoption of IFRS 16:


The following table reconciles the amount disclosed as operating lease commitments at December 31, 2018 disclosed in the Group’s 2018 consolidated financial statements to the amount recognised on the Balance sheet in respect of lease liabilities on adoption of IFRS 16.