Imperial Brands PLC – Annual report – 30 September 2022
2. ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND JUDGEMENTS (extract)
Companies are required to state whether estimates have a significant risk of a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year. We have reviewed the items below where estimation uncertainty exists. While a number of these areas do involve estimation of the carrying value of assets or liabilities that are potentially significant within the context of the financial statements the Group considers the probability of a significant risk of material adjustment to be low. None of these estimates are expected to present a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets and liabilities in the next financial year. Therefore, no significant estimates are required to be disclosed.
Other estimates (extracts)
Other estimates involve other uncertainties, such as those carrying lower risk, which have a smaller potential impact or would be expected to crystallise over a longer timeframe than a significant estimate. These items, listed below, are only disclosed where this provides material relevant information.
Corporate income taxes
Where tax liabilities have been judged to exist, estimation is often required to determine the potential future tax payments. The Group is subject to tax in numerous jurisdictions and significant judgement is required in determining the provision for tax. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. The Group recognises provisions for tax based on estimates of the taxes that are likely to become due. Where the final tax outcome is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will impact the current income tax and deferred tax provisions in the period in which such determination is made. Consideration of the valuation estimates related to tax provisions are given in note 7 to these financial statements.
Paragraph 122 of IAS 1 requires disclosure of judgements made by management in applying an entity’s accounting policies, other than those relating to estimation uncertainty. Paragraph 125 of IAS 1 requires more wide-ranging disclosures of judgements that depend on management assumptions about the future, and other major sources of estimation uncertainty (‘Significant Judgements’).
Corporate income taxes
Judgement is involved in determining whether the Group is subject to a tax liability or not in line with tax law. The Group is subject to income tax in numerous jurisdictions and significant judgement is required in determining whether there is a liability requiring a provision for tax. Recognition of tax liabilities in situations where there is uncertainty is based on precedent in similar tax cases and external advice as to whether challenges by tax authorities are likely to result in future tax payments being made. The recognition of a tax liability involves consideration of the probability of tax authorities would accept the position taken in the tax return and there is therefore some uncertainty.
Deferred tax assets
Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences, losses and credits can be utilised. Significant management judgement is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognised, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits, together with future tax planning strategies. The Group has determined that it cannot recognise deferred tax assets on the temporary differences, tax losses and tax credits carried forward for certain subsidiaries. Further details of the estimates related to deferred taxes are given in note 22 to these financial statements.
7. TAX (extract)
Movement on the current tax account
The cash tax paid in the year is £239 million lower than the current tax charge (2021: £333 million higher). This arises as a result of timing differences between the accrual of income taxes and the actual payment of cash and the movement in the provision for uncertain tax positions.
Analysis of current tax account
Uncertain tax positions
As an international business the Group is exposed to uncertain tax positions and changes in legislation in the jurisdictions in which it operates. The Group’s uncertain tax positions principally include cross border transfer pricing, interpretation of new or complex tax legislation and tax arising on the valuation of assets.
Provisions arising from uncertain tax positions taken in the calculation of tax assets and liabilities are included within current tax liabilities. At 30 September 2022 the total value of these provisions, including foreign exchange movements, was £148 million (2021: £306 million). The assessment of uncertain tax positions is subjective and significant management judgement is required. This judgement is based on current interpretation of legislation, management experience and professional advice. Until matters are finally concluded it is possible that amounts ultimately paid will be different from the amounts provided.
Management have assessed the Group’s provision for uncertain tax positions and have concluded that apart from the matters referred to below, the provisions in place are not material individually or in aggregate, and that a reasonably possible change in the next financial year would not have a material impact to the results of the Group.
French tax litigation
In November 2015 the Group received a challenge from the French tax authorities that could lead to additional tax liabilities of up to £240 million. The challenge concerns the valuation placed on the shares of Altadis Distribution France (now known as Logista France) following an intragroup transfer of shares in October 2012 and the tax consequences flowing from a potentially higher value that is argued for by the tax authorities. In October 2018 the Commission Nationale, an independent adjudication body, whose decision is advisory only, issued a report supportive of the Group’s arguments for no adjustment. In December 2018 the French tax authorities issued their final assessments seeking the full amount of additional tax assessed of £240 million (2021: £234 million). In January 2019 the Group appealed against the assessment. In August 2020, the French tax authorities rejected the Group’s appeal and the matter will now proceed to litigation. All submissions have been made to the court and we await a hearing date. The Group believes it is appropriate to maintain a £42 million (2021: £41 million) provision for uncertain tax positions in respect of this matter.
State aid UK CFC
The Group continues to monitor developments in relation to EU State Aid investigations. On 25 April 2019, the EU Commission’s final decision regarding its investigation into the UK’s Controlled Foreign Company regime was published. It concludes that the legislation up until December 2018 does partially represent State Aid. The UK Government has appealed to the European Court seeking annulment of the EU Commission’s decision. The Group, along with a number of UK corporates, has made a similar application to the European Court. The UK Government is obliged to collect any State Aid granted pending the outcome of the European Court process.
Based on the Commission’s decision and despite the appeals, the UK government was obliged to recover State Aid received. Whilst the Group’s position remains no State Aid has been received, in February 2021 a recovery charging notice for £101 million was issued to the Group by HMRC, and has since been paid.
In June 2022 the European General Court rejected the appeals. Whilst this decision has been appealed to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and the appeal may possibly be successful, in the light of the European General Court’s decision we have reassessed recoverability of the £101 million previously recorded as a receivable and have now determined it is appropriate to provide in full.
The Group has tax audits in progress, relating to transfer pricing matters in a number of jurisdictions, principally UK, France and Germany. The Group estimates the potential gross level of exposure relating to transfer pricing issues is approximately £200 million (2021: £900 million). The Group holds a provision of £54 million (2021: £260 million) in respect of these items.
In August 2020 the Group notified HMRC of a potential Diverted Profits Tax (DPT) issue relating to brand rewards. In September 2020, HMRC issued a preliminary notice under the DPT regime in respect of the year ended 30 September 2016 indicating a potential liability of c. £6 million. Collaborative discussions on the issue continue and it is the Group’s belief the issue is a transfer pricing one, and will be resolved as such. In November 2020, HMRC issued a final DPT notice, which has since been paid and recognised as a receivable. In September 2021, further preliminary DPT notices were received in respect of the year ended 30 September 2017 indicating a potential liability of c. £4 million, which has since been paid and recognised as a receivable. Based on advice, the Group continues to believe this is a transfer pricing matter. In September 2022 this matter was concluded as a transfer pricing matter, in respect of which a settlement was made. These DPT payments are now expected to be refunded.
In December 2021 the Group concluded a transfer pricing audit with the French tax authorities. In September 2022 the Group concluded transfer pricing audits with the UK and German tax authorities. Settlements of the French and UK audits were made during the Group’s year ended 30 September 2022.
The Group believe the transfer pricing provision held above appropriately provides for this and other transfer pricing issues.
French branch tax
In December 2021 the Group received assessments from the French tax authorities which could lead to additional liabilities of £169 million. The challenge concerns the intragroup financing of the French branch of Imperial Tobacco Limited. In February 2022 the Group appealed against the assessment. In September 2022 the French tax authorities opened a further tax audit into this matter. Following discussions with the French tax authorities a settlement proposal covering all years has been made for £48 million including interest, for which a provision has been made.