Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. – Annual report – 31 December 2018
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (extract)
2.4 Foreign Currency Translation
(A) Functional and presentation currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Company’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which each entity operates (the “functional currency”). The consolidated financial statements are presented in Korean won, which is the parent company’s functional and presentation currency.
(B) Transactions and balances
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions or valuation where items are re-measured. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in profit or loss.
Exchange differences arising on non-monetary financial assets and liabilities such as equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss and equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income are recognized in profit or loss and other comprehensive income, respectively, as part of the fair value gain or loss.
(C) Translation into the presentation currency
The results and financial position of all the foreign entities that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency of the Company are translated into the presentation currency as follows:
• Assets and liabilities for each statement of financial position presented are translated at the closing rate at the end of the reporting date.
• Income and expenses for each statement of income are translated at average exchange rates, unless this average is not a reasonable approximation of the cumulative effect of the rates prevailing on the transaction dates, in which case income and expenses are translated at the rate on the dates of the transactions.
• All resulting exchange differences are recognized in other comprehensive income.
2.28 Convenience Translation into United States Dollar Amounts
The Company operates primarily in Korean won and its official accounting records are maintained in Korean won. The US dollar amounts provided in the financial statements represent supplementary information solely for the convenience of the reader. All Korean won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of ￦1,100.2 to US $1, the average exchange rate for the year ended December 31, 2018. Such presentation is not in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and should not be construed as a representation that the Korean won amounts shown could be readily converted, realized or settled in US dollars at this or at any other rate.