CLP Holdings Limited – Half year report – 30 June 2018
[Note: no intersegment revenues in this example]
Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements (extracts)
- Adoption of HKFRS 15
The Group has first time adopted HKFRS 15 from 1 January 2018 which resulted in changes in accounting policies and adjustments to the amounts recognised in the financial statements. In accordance with the transition provisions of HKFRS 15, the Group has adopted the modified retrospective application, under which the cumulative effect of the initial application is adjusted to the opening balance of retained profits on 1 January 2018 and no comparative figures are restated.
HKFRS 15 establishes a new framework for revenue recognition. This replaces HKAS 18 which covers contracts for goods and services and HKAS 11 which covers construction contracts. The new standard introduces a five-step model to determine when to recognise revenue and at what amount. Under the five-step model, revenue is recognised when control of goods or services is transferred to a customer and at the amount to which the entity expects to be entitled. Depending on the nature of the contracts, revenue is either recognised over time or at a point in time. The new standard also sets out new capitalisation criteria for contract acquisition costs which are incremental and the entity is expected to recover them.
(A) Impact on adoption
Considering the nature of the Group’s principal activities (i.e. generation and supply of electricity and sales of gas), the adoption of HKFRS 15 does not have material impact on the Group’s revenue recognition. The key impact to the Group is on the accounting for costs to obtain a contract.
Costs of HK$247 million related to commissions paid to third parties for obtaining the contracts with residential customers in Australia were expensed previously but were qualified for capitalisation as an asset under HKFRS 15 at 1 January 2018. The capitalised costs are amortised on a straight line basis over the expected benefit periods of the contracts and consistent with the recognition pattern of the associated revenue. The table below summarises the impact on the adoption of HKFRS 15:
- Increase in amortisation offset by capitalisation of commissions paid
(B) Revised accounting policy for revenue
Revenue from contracts with customers primarily represents sales of electricity and gas.
Revenues from sales of electricity and gas are recognised when electricity and gas are supplied to and consumed by the customers. Revenues are measured at the amounts billed to the customers based on the periodic cycle meter readings and the estimated accruals for the value of electricity and gas consumed from the meter reading date to the end of the reporting period (the “unbilled revenue”).
Incremental costs to obtain a contract with a customer are capitalised if they are expected to be recoverable. Costs capitalised are amortised on a straight line basis over the expected benefit periods of the contracts. Non-incremental costs, i.e. costs would have been incurred regardless of whether the contract is obtained, are expensed when incurred.
Operating lease income represents leases payments which vary with operation parameters and are recognised as revenue when they are earned. Lease service income comprises servicing income and fuel costs received from lessees with respect to the leased assets. Finance lease income represents the interest element of the lease receipts on lease receivables and is recognised over the lease period using the effective interest method.
The Group’s revenue is disaggregated as follows:
Note: Under the SoC Agreement, if the gross tariff revenue in a period is less than or exceeds the total of the SoC operating costs, permitted return and taxation charges, such deficiency shall be deducted from, or such excess shall be added to, the Tariff Stabilisation Fund. In any period, the amount of deduction from or addition to the Tariff Stabilisation Fund is recognised as revenue adjustment to the extent that the return and charges under the SoC are recognised in profit or loss.
Another analysis of revenue from contracts with customers by segment is shown in Note 5.
- Segment Information
The Group operates, through its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, in five major geographical regions – Hong Kong, Mainland China, India, Southeast Asia and Taiwan, and Australia. In accordance with the Group’s internal organisation and reporting structure, the operating segments are based on geographical regions. Substantially all the principal activities of the Group in each region are for the generation and supply of electricity which are managed and operated on an integrated basis.
Information about the Group’s operations by geographical region is as follows:
EBITDAF = Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortisation, and fair value adjustments. For this purpose, fair value adjustments include fair value gains or losses on derivative financial instruments relating to transactions not qualifying as hedges and ineffectiveness of cash flow hedges. Items affecting comparability refer to significant unusual and infrequent events such as acquisition / disposal, impairment of non-current assets, property valuation gain / loss, provision for legal disputes and change in law or natural catastrophe. They are considered irrelevant for assessing the underlying performance of the Group and are separately disclosed to allow a better understanding and comparison of the financial results. Details of the items affecting comparability can be found on page 9.
Our investments in Mainland China are mainly through joint ventures and associates, whereby under equity method of accounting, CLP shares its proportionate earnings but not the revenues and expenses.
The difference between total assets and total liabilities represents equity holders’ (mainly shareholders’) financing