ArcelorMittal S.A. – Annual report – 31 December 2017
Note 5: Goodwill, intangible and tangible assets (extract)
5.1 Goodwill and intangible assets (extract)
The carrying amounts of goodwill and intangible assets are summarized as follows:
Goodwill arising on an acquisition is recognized as previously described within the business combinations section in note 2.2.3. Goodwill is allocated to those groups of cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arose and in all cases is at the operating segment level, which represents the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes.
Goodwill acquired in business combinations for each of the Company’s operating segments is as follows:
5.3 Impairment of intangible assets, including goodwill, and tangible assets
Impairment charges recognized, were as follows:
Impairment test of goodwill
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually, as of October 31 or whenever changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable, at the level of the groups of cash-generating units (“GCGU”) which correspond to the operating segments representing the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes. Whenever the cash-generating units comprising the operating segments are tested for impairment at the same time as goodwill, the cash-generating units are tested first and any impairment of the assets is recorded prior to the testing of goodwill.
The recoverable amounts of the GCGUs are mainly determined based on their value in use. The value in use of each GCGU is determined by estimating future cash flows. The 2017 impairment test of goodwill did not include the GCGU corresponding to the Mining segment as goodwill allocated to this GCGU was fully impaired in 2015. The key assumptions for the value in use calculations are primarily the discount rates, growth rates, expected changes to average selling prices, shipments and direct costs during the period. Assumptions for average selling prices and shipments are based on historical experience and expectations of future changes in the market. In addition, with respect to raw material price assumptions, the Company applied a range of $57 /t to $67 /t for iron ore and $118 /t to$168 /t for coking coal. Cash flow forecasts adjusted for the risks specific to the tested assets are derived from the most recent financial plans approved by management for the next five years. Beyond the specifically forecasted period, the Company extrapolates cash flows for the remaining years based on an estimated growth rate of 2%. This rate does not exceed the average long-term growth rate for the relevant markets.
Management estimates discount rates using pre-tax rates that reflect current market rates for investments of similar risk. The rate for each GCGU was estimated from the weighted average cost of capital of producers, which operate a portfolio of assets similar to those of the Company’s assets.
Once recognized, impairment losses for goodwill are not reversed.
There was no impairment charge recognized with respect to goodwill following the Company’s impairment test as of October 31, 2017. The total value in use calculated for all GCGUs increased overall in 2017 as compared to 2016.
In validating the value in use determined for the GCGUs, the Company performed a sensitivity analysis of key assumptions used in the discounted cash-flow model (such as discount rates, average selling prices, shipments and terminal growth rate). The Company believes that reasonably possible changes in key assumptions could cause an impairment loss to be recognized in respect of ACIS and the Brazil segments.
ACIS produces a combination of flat and long products. Its facilities are located in Asia, Africa and Commonwealth of Independent States. ACIS is significantly self-sufficient in raw materials. The Company believes that sales volumes, prices and discount rates are the key assumptions most sensitive to change. ACIS is also exposed to export markets and international steel prices which are volatile, reflecting the cyclical nature of the global steel industry, developments in particular steel consuming industries and macroeconomic trends of emerging markets, such as economic growth. Discount rates may be affected by changes in countries’ specific risks; such risk premium decreased in 2017 in the case of Ukraine due to improved political and market conditions. The ACIS value in use model anticipates a limited increase in sales volumes in 2018 compared to 2017 ( 13.1 million tonnes for the year ended December 31, 2017) and marginal improvements thereafter. Average selling prices in the model are expected to increase in 2018 due to higher international raw material prices and stabilize subsequently in line with such long-term prices.
The Brazil segment produces a combination of flat and long products. Its facilities are mainly located in Brazil and Argentina. The Company believes that sales volumes, prices and discount rates are the key assumptions most sensitive to change. It is also exposed to export markets and international steel prices which are volatile, reflecting the cyclical nature of the global steel industry, developments in particular steel consuming industries and macroeconomic trends of emerging markets, such as economic growth. Discount rates may be affected by changes in countries’ specific risks, in particular in Brazil, whose economy starts however a turnaround with improved market conditions leading to higher steel prices and higher steel consumption, particularly in the automotive industry whereas some weakness remains in the construction business. The Brazil value in use model anticipates a marginal increase in sales volumes in 2018 compared to 2017 (10.8 tonnes for the year ended December 31, 2017), a slight decrease in 2019 and continuous improvements thereafter. Average selling prices in the model are expected to increase in 2018 following higher raw material prices and adjust to a stable but lower level subsequently.
The following changes in key assumptions in projected earnings in every year of initial five-year period and perpetuity, at the GCGU level, assuming unchanged values for the other assumptions, would cause the recoverable amount to equal respective carrying value as of the impairment test date (i.e.: October 31, 2017 and 2016).
Impairment test of intangible assets
In 2015, in connection with management’s annual test for impairment of goodwill as of October 31, 2015, intangible assets were also tested for impairment at that date. Accordingly, ArcelorMittal recognized impairment charges of 94 and 63with respect to mining permits and concessions in ArcelorMittal Princeton in the United States and ArcelorMittal Liberia (Mining), respectively.
Impairment test of property, plant and equipment
At each reporting date, ArcelorMittal reviews the carrying amounts of its intangible assets (excluding goodwill) and tangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that the carrying amount of those assets may not be recoverable through continuing use. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset (or cash generating unit) is reviewed in order to determine the amount of the impairment, if any. The recoverable amount is the higher of its net selling price (fair value reduced by selling costs) and its value in use.
In estimating its value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset (or cash-generating unit). For an asset that does not generate cash inflows largely independent of those from other assets, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. The cash-generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets corresponding to operating units that generate cash inflows. If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized. An impairment loss is recognized as an expense immediately as part of operating income in the consolidated statements of operations.
In the case of permanently idled assets, the impairment is measured at the individual asset level. Otherwise, the Company’s assets are measured for impairment at the cash-generating unit level. In certain instances, the cash-generating unit is an integrated manufacturing facility which may also be an operating subsidiary. Further, a manufacturing facility may be operated in concert with another facility with neither facility generating cash flows that are largely independent from the cash flows of the other. In this instance, the two facilities are combined for purposes of testing for impairment. As of December 31, 2017, the Company determined it has 59 cash-generating units.
An impairment loss, related to intangible assets other than goodwill and tangible assets recognized in prior years is reversed if, and only if, there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. However, the increased carrying amount of an asset due to a reversal of an impairment loss will not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognized immediately as part of operating income in the consolidated statements of operations.
Impairment charges relating to property, plant and equipment were as follows for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015:
In 2017, the Company recognized a total impairment charge related to property, plant and equipment in AMSA (ACIS) amounting to 206.
During the six months ended June 30, 2017, management performed a test for impairment relating to the Long Carbon cash-generating unit of ArcelorMittal South Africa as a result of a downward revision of cash flow projections. Accordingly, the Company recognized an impairment charge of 46 consisting of the following:
In connection with management’s annual test for impairment of goodwill, property, plant and equipment was also tested for impairment at that date. As of December 31, 2017, the Company concluded that the value in use of property, plant and equipment in AMSA was lower than its carrying amount in the context of the appreciation of the rand against U.S. dollar and the uncertainties about demand outlook. Accordingly, the Company recognized a total impairment charge of 160 consisting mainly of the following:
In 2016, the Company recognized a total impairment charge of property, plant and equipment amounting to 205.
This charge included 49 in connection with the sale of the ArcelorMittal Zaragoza facility in Spain (Europe segment) on September 30, 2016 (see note 2.3.1).
In connection with management’s annual test for impairment of goodwill as of October 31, 2016, property, plant and equipment was also tested for impairment at that date. The Company concluded that the value in use of property, plant and equipment in AMSA was lower than its carrying amount following a revised competitive outlook. Accordingly, the Company recognized a total impairment charge of 156 consisting mainly of the following:
In 2015, the Company recognized an impairment charge of property, plant and equipment amounting to 3,753.
This charge included 335 relating to the idling for an indefinite time of the Sestao facility in Spain (Europe segment), 19 in connection with the closure of the Georgetown facility in the United States (NAFTA) and 27 related to the Vereeniging meltshop closure in South Africa (ACIS). Additionally, the Company recognized impairment charges of 231 and 18 in connection with the intended sale of the Long Carbon facilities (ArcelorMittal Laplace, Steelton and Vinton) in the United States (NAFTA) and the intended sale of certain activities of ArcelorMittal Downstream Solutions (Europe segment), respectively.
In addition, the Company recorded impairment charges of 176, 276 and 45 relating to the ArcelorMittal Point Lisas facility currently idled in Trinidad and Tobago (Brazil segment), Indiana Harbor East and West facilities in the United States (NAFTA) following deployment of asset optimization programs and other assets in Spain (Europe segment), respectively.
In connection with management’s annual test for impairment of goodwill as of October 31, 2015, property, plant and equipment was also tested for impairment at that date. Management concluded that the recoverable amount of certain of the Company’s property, plant and equipment in the Mining segment was lower than their carrying amount due to a downward revision of cash flow projections primarily resulting from the expected persistence of a lower coking coal and iron ore price outlook. The Company also concluded that the value in use of property, plant and equipment of the Saldanha plant in AMSA was lower than its carrying amount following a revised competitive outlook. Accordingly, the Company recognized a total impairment charge of 2,617 consisting of the following: