WH Group Limited – Annual report – 31 December 2021
3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (extract)
Biological assets represent live hogs and poultry, which fall into five categories: suckling hogs, nursery hogs, finisher hogs, broilers and breeding stock (hogs and poultry). They are measured on initial recognition and at the end of each reporting period at their fair value less costs to sell. A gain or loss arising on initial recognition of biological asset at fair value less costs to sell and from a change in fair value less costs to sell of a biological asset is included in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.
The agricultural produce (i.e., carcass) harvested from the biological assets is measured at its fair value less costs to sell at the point of harvest. Such measurement is the cost at that date when applying IAS 2 Inventories upon initial recognition. A gain or loss arising from agricultural produce at the point of harvest at fair value less costs to sell is included in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.
4. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS AND ESTIMATES (extract)
Estimation uncertainty (extract)
Fair value measurement of live hogs included in biological assets
The Group engaged an independent qualified valuer to perform the live hog valuations at the end of each reporting period, the fair values less costs to sell are determined based on the price of hogs in the actively traded market, reduced by the breeding costs required to raise the hogs to be slaughtered and the margins that would be required by a raiser and less costs to sell, with reference to the latest budgets approved by management. This determination involved the use of significant judgements and estimates. If the actual results differ to the original estimates made by management, such differences from the original estimates will impact the fair value change recognised in profit or loss. The carrying amount of live hogs was US$1,243 million as at 31 December 2021 (2020: US$1,028 million) (see note 17).
17. BIOLOGICAL ASSETS
The biological assets of the Group are live hogs and poultry at various stages of development, including suckling hogs, nursery hogs and finishing hogs and broilers which are classified as current assets. Biological assets also include breeding stock (hogs and poultry), which are used to produce future live hogs and broilers, are classified as non-current assets of the Group. The quantities of live hogs, broilers and breeding stock owned by the Group at the end of each reporting period are as follows:
* Less than 1 million heads.
In general, once a sow is inseminated, it will gestate for a period of 112 to 115 days. New born hogs are classified as “suckling”. The suckling hogs will stay with their mother for three to four weeks at which time they will be weaned. Once the suckling hogs are weaned, at approximately 1 to 8 kilograms, they are transferred to the “nursery”.
The nursery facilities are designed to meet the needs of newly weaned pigs. They are fed with a series of specially formulated diets to meet their changing nutritional needs. The pigs will stay in the nursery for approximately 6 weeks where they will grow to approximately 7 to 45 kilograms and then be transferred to the “finishing” farm.
Finishing hogs typically stay in this phase for 13 to 19 weeks. During that time, they will grow to approximately 23 to 132 kilograms and be considered as a live hog with market value. Once the hog reaches the ideal weight, they are loaded onto specially designed trucks for transport to the processing facility.
In general, once a pullet lays eggs, the eggs will be sent to the hatchery and it will take approximately 21 days to be hatched. The hatched chicks are then sent to the broiler farm.
The chicks are fed with a series of specially formulated diets to meet their nutrition needs. The chicks will stay in the broiler farm for approximately 38 to 42 days where they will grow to approximately 2 kilograms and then be considered as a broiler with market value.
Once the broiler reaches the market weight, they are loaded onto specially designed trucks for transport to the processing facility.
The Group is exposed to a number of risks related to its biological assets. The Group is exposed to the following operating risks:
(i) Regulatory and environmental risks
The Group is subject to laws and regulations in the location in which it operates breeding of hogs and poultry. The Group has established environmental policies and procedures aiming at complying with local environmental and other laws. Management performs regular reviews to identify environmental risks and to ensure that the systems in place are adequate to manage these risks.
(ii) Climate, disease and other natural risks
The Group’s biological assets are exposed to the risk of damage from climatic changes, diseases and other natural forces. The Group has extensive processes in place aiming at monitoring and mitigating those risks, including regular inspections, disease controls and insurance.
Carrying value of the Group’s biological assets
Analysed for reporting purposes as:
Fair value measurement — Level 3
* Less than US$1 million.
The fair values of breeding stock (hogs and poultry) are determined based on the average of the historical selling price of hog and poultry of similar breed and genetic merit less costs to sell (Level 3). The estimated fair value will significantly increase when there is a slight increase in the average historical selling price, and vice versa.
The fair values of live hogs and broilers are mainly determined based on the price of hogs and broilers in the actively traded market, subtracting the breeding costs required to raise the live hogs and broilers to be slaughtered and the margins that would be required by a raiser and less costs to sell (Level 3). The estimated fair value will increase when there is an increase in the market price of hogs and broilers or decrease in the breeding cost required to raise the live hogs and broilers, and vice versa.
Changes in fair value less costs to sell of biological assets include changes in the fair value of the hogs and poultry at the end of both years. The Group’s biological assets were valued by the independent qualified valuer, Jones Lang LaSalle Corporate Appraisal and Advisory Limited (“JLL”) situated at 7/F, One Taikoo Place, 979 King’s Road, Hong Kong.
Set forth below are the key assumptions and inputs adopted in the valuation process of biological assets: