Air Canada – Annual report – 31 December 2017
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (extract)
L) FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Financial assets and financial liabilities, including derivatives, are recognized on the consolidated statement of financial position when the Corporation becomes a party to the financial instrument or derivative contract.
The Corporation classifies its financial assets and financial liabilities in the following measurement categories i) those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income or through profit or loss) and ii) those to be measured at amortized cost. The classification of financial assets depends on the business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows. Financial liabilities are classified as those to be measured at amortized cost unless they are designated as those to be measured subsequently at fair value through profit or loss (irrevocable election at the time of recognition). For assets and liabilities measured at fair value, gains and losses are either recorded in profit or loss or other comprehensive income.
The Corporation reclassifies financial assets when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes. Financial liabilities are not reclassified.
The Corporation has implemented the following classifications:
- Cash and cash equivalents, Short-term investments, and Restricted cash are classified as assets at fair value and any period change in fair value is recorded through Interest income in the consolidated statement of operations, as applicable.
- Accounts receivable and Aircraft-related and other deposits are classified as assets at amortized cost and are measured using the effective interest rate method. Interest income is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations, as applicable.
- Accounts payable, credit facilities, and long-term debt are classified as other financial liabilities and are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method. Interest expense is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations, as applicable.
All financial instruments are required to be measured at fair value on initial recognition, plus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset or financial liability. Transaction costs of financial assets and financial liabilities carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in profit or loss. Financial assets with embedded derivatives are considered in their entirety when determining whether their cash flows are solely payment of principal and interest.
Financial assets that are held within a business model whose objective is to collect the contractual cash flows, and that have contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal outstanding are generally measured at amortized cost at the end of the subsequent accounting periods. All other financial assets including equity investments are measured at their fair values at the end of subsequent accounting periods, with any changes taken through profit and loss or other comprehensive income (irrevocable election at the time of recognition).
The Corporation assesses all information available, including, on a forward-looking basis, the expected credit losses associated with its assets carried at amortized cost. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. To assess whether there is a significant increase in credit risk, the Corporation compares the risk of a default occurring on the asset as at the reporting date with the risk of default as at the date of initial recognition based on all information available, and reasonable and supportive forward-looking information. For trade receivables only, the Corporation applies the simplified approach as permitted by IFRS 9 which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognized from initial recognition of receivables.
Derivatives and Hedge Accounting
Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The accounting for subsequent changes in fair value depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged and the type of hedge relationship designated. The Corporation documents at the inception of the hedging transaction the economic relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items including whether the hedging instrument is expected to offset changes in cash flows of hedged items. The Corporation documents its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions at the inception of each hedging relationship.
The Corporation applies hedge accounting for designated fuel derivatives. Crude oil prices, while not contractually specified in the Corporation’s jet fuel purchase contracts, are economically related to jet fuel prices. The Corporation enters into option contracts on crude oil and designates the contracts in cash flow hedges of the crude oil component of its future jet fuel purchases. The Corporation has established a hedge ratio of 1:1 for its hedging relationships. Under hedge accounting, to the extent effective, the gain or loss on fuel hedging derivatives is recorded in other comprehensive income. Premiums paid for option contracts and the time value of the option contracts are deferred as a cost of the hedge in other comprehensive income. Amounts accumulated in other comprehensive income are presented as hedging reserve in equity and are reclassified to Aircraft fuel expense when the underlying hedged jet fuel is used. Any ineffective gain or loss on fuel hedging derivatives is recorded in non-operating expense in Gain on financial instruments recorded at fair value. Refer to Note 15 for the results from fuel hedge accounting.
When a hedging instrument expires, is sold or terminated, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative deferred gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging in equity at that time remains in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. When the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging that were reported in equity are immediately reclassified to profit or loss.
If the hedge ratio for risk management purposes is no longer optimal but the risk management objective remains unchanged and the hedge continues to qualify for hedge accounting, the hedge relationship will be rebalanced by adjusting either the volume of the hedged instrument or the volume of the hedged item so that the hedge ratio aligns with the ratio used for risk management purposes. Any hedge ineffectiveness is calculated and accounted for in profit or loss at the time of the hedge relationship rebalancing.
The Corporation enters into foreign currency, fuel derivatives and share forward contracts to manage the associated risks. Derivative instruments are recorded on the consolidated statement of financial position at fair value, including those derivatives that are embedded in financial or non-financial contracts that are required to be accounted for separately. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments are recognized in Non-operating income (expense), except for effective changes for designated fuel derivatives under hedge accounting as described above. Derivative contracts are included in the consolidated statement of financial position at fair value in Prepaid expenses and other current assets, Deposits and other assets, and Accounts payable and accrued liabilities based on the terms of the contractual agreements. All cash flows associated with purchasing and selling derivatives are classified as operating cash flows in the consolidated statement of cash flow.
15. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND RISK MANAGEMENT (extract)
Risk Management (extract 1)
Fuel Price Risk
Fuel price risk is the risk that future cash flows will fluctuate because of changes in jet fuel prices. In order to manage its exposure to jet fuel prices and to help mitigate volatility in operating cash flows, the Corporation enters into derivative contracts with financial intermediaries. The Corporation may use derivative contracts based on jet fuel, heating oil and crude-oil based contracts. The Corporation’s policy permits hedging of up to 75% of the projected jet fuel purchases for the next 12 months, 50% for the next 13 to 24 months and 25% for the next 25 to 36 months. These are maximum (but not mandated) limits. There is no minimum monthly hedging requirement. There are regular reviews to adjust the strategy in light of market conditions.
- Hedging gains on the settlement of fuel derivatives of $26 and the associated premium costs of $28, for a net hedging loss of $2 were reclassified from other comprehensive income to Aircraft fuel expense (net fuel hedging loss of $23 was reclassified from other comprehensive income to Aircraft fuel expense in 2016). No hedge ineffectiveness was recorded.
- The Corporation purchased crude-oil call options covering a portion of 2017 fuel exposure. The cash premium related to these contracts was $18 ($34 in 2016 for 2016 and 2017 exposures).
- Fuel derivative contracts cash settled with a fair value of $26 in favour of the Corporation ($23 in favour of the Corporation in 2016).
As at December 31, 2017, there are no outstanding fuel derivatives. The fair value of the fuel derivatives portfolio was $14 in favour of the Corporation as at December 31, 2016 and recorded within Prepaid expenses and other current assets.
Risk Management (extract 2)
The following table is a sensitivity analysis for each type of market risk relevant to the significant financial instruments recorded by the Corporation as at December 31, 2017. The sensitivity analysis is based on certain movements in the relevant risk factor. These assumptions may not be representative of actual movements in these risks and may not be relied upon. Given potential volatility in the financial and commodity markets, the actual movements and related percentage changes may differ significantly from those outlined below. Changes in income generally cannot be extrapolated because the relationship of the change in assumption to the change in income may not be linear. Each risk is contemplated independent of other risks; however, changes in one factor may result in changes in one or more several other factors, which may magnify or counteract the sensitivities.
The sensitivity analysis related to derivative contracts is based on the estimated fair value change applicable to the derivative as at December 31, 2017 considering a number of variables including the remaining term to maturity and does not consider the fair value change that would be applicable to the derivative assuming the market risk change was applicable to the maturity date of the derivative contract.
(1) Increase (decrease) in foreign exchange relates to a strengthening (weakening) of the Canadian dollar versus the U.S. dollar. The impact on long-term debt and finance leases includes $10 related to the Canadian dollar versus the Japanese yen. The impact of changes in other currencies is not significant to the Corporation’s financial instruments.
(2) The sensitivity analysis for share forward contracts is based upon a 10% increase or decrease in the Air Canada Share price.