IAS 37, payment protection insurance and other, estimates and judgements, sensitivities, contingencies

Lloyds Banking Group plc – Annual report – 31 December 2018

Industry: banking

Note 3: Critical accounting judgements and estimates (extract)
Payment protection insurance and other regulatory provisions
At 31 December 2018, the Group carried provisions of £2,385 million (2017: £4,070 million) against the cost of making redress payments to customers and the related administration costs in connection with historical regulatory breaches, principally the mis-selling of payment protection insurance (2018 £1,524 million; 2017: £2,778 million).

Determining the amount of the provisions, which represent management’s best estimate of the cost of settling these issues, requires the exercise of significant judgement. It will often be necessary to form a view on matters which are inherently uncertain, such as the scope of reviews required by regulators, the number of future complaints, the extent to which they will be upheld, the average cost of redress and the impact of legal decisions that may be relevant to claims received. Consequently the continued appropriateness of the underlying assumptions is reviewed on a regular basis against actual experience and other relevant evidence and adjustments made to the provisions where appropriate.

More detail on the nature of the assumptions that have been made and key sensitivities is set out in note 37.

Note 37: Other provisions


Provisions for financial commitments and guarantees
Provisions are held in cases where the Group is irrevocably committed to advance additional funds, but where there is doubt as to the customer’s ability to meet its repayment obligations. See also note 20.

Payment protection insurance (excluding MBNA)
The Group increased the provision for PPI costs by a further £750 million in the year ended 31 December 2018, bringing the total amount provided to £19,425 million.

The charge in 2018 related to a number of factors including higher expected complaint volumes, which increased to 13,000 per week, and associated administration costs, an increase in average redress per complaint, additional operational costs to deal with potential complaint volatility and continued improvements in data interrogation and the Group’s ability to identify valid complaints. The remaining provision is consistent with an average of approximately 13,000 complaints per week to the industry deadline of the end of August 2019.

At 31 December 2018, a provision of £1,329 million remained unutilised relating to complaints and associated administration costs. Total cash payments were £1,859 million during the year ended 31 December 2018.

The Group estimates that it has sold approximately 16 million PPI policies since 2000. These include policies that were not mis-sold and those that have been successfully claimed upon. Since the commencement of the PPI redress programme in 2011 the Group estimates that it has contacted, settled or provided for approximately 53 per cent of the policies sold since 2000.

The total amount provided for PPI represents the Group’s best estimate of the likely future cost. However a number of risks and uncertainties remain including with respect to future complaint volumes. The cost could differ from the Group’s estimates and the assumptions underpinning them, and could result in a further provision being required. There is also uncertainty around the impact of the regulatory changes, Financial Conduct Authority media campaign and Claims Management Company and customer activity, and potential additional remediation arising from the continuous improvement of the Group’s operational practices.

For every additional 1,000 reactive complaints per week above 13,000 on average from January 2019 through to the industry deadline of the end of August 2019, the Group would expect an additional charge of approximately £85 million.

Payment protection insurance (MBNA)
As announced in December 2016, the Group’s exposure is capped at £240 million, which is already provided for through an indemnity received from Bank of America. MBNA increased its PPI provision by £100 million in the year ended 31 December 2018 but the Group’s exposure continues to remain capped at £240 million under the arrangement with Bank of America, notwithstanding this increase by MBNA.

Other provisions for legal actions and regulatory matters
In the course of its business, the Group is engaged in discussions with the PRA, FCA and other UK and overseas regulators and other governmental authorities on a range of matters. The Group also receives complaints in connection with its past conduct and claims brought by or on behalf of current and former employees, customers, investors and other third parties and is subject to legal proceedings and other legal actions. Where significant, provisions are held against the costs expected to be incurred in relation to these matters and matters arising from related internal reviews. During the year ended 31 December 2018 the Group charged a further £600 million in respect of legal actions and other regulatory matters, and the unutilised balance at 31 December 2018 was £861 million (31 December 2017: £1,292 million). The most significant items are as follows.

Arrears handling related activities
The Group has provided an additional £151 million in the year ended 31 December 2018 for the costs of identifying and rectifying certain arrears management fees and activities, taking the total provided to date to £793 million. The Group has put in place a number of actions to improve its handling of customers in these areas and has made good progress in reimbursing arrears fees to impacted customers.

Packaged bank accounts
The Group has provided a further £45 million in the year ended 31 December 2018 (£245 million was provided in the year ended 31 December 2017) in respect of complaints relating to alleged mis-selling of packaged bank accounts, raising the total amount provided to £795 million. A number of risks and uncertainties remain particularly with respect to future volumes.

Customer claims in relation to insurance branch business in Germany
The Group continues to receive claims in Germany from customers relating to policies issued by Clerical Medical Investment Group Limited (subsequently renamed Scottish Widows Limited), with smaller numbers received from customers in Austria and Italy. The industry-wide issue regarding notification of contractual ‘cooling off’ periods continued to lead to an increasing number of claims in 2016 and 2017 levelling out in 2018. Up to 31 December 2017 the Group had provided a total of £639 million, with no further amounts provided during the year ended 31 December 2018. The validity of the claims facing the Group depends upon the facts and circumstances in respect of each claim. As a result the ultimate financial effect, which could be significantly different from the current provision, will be known only once all relevant claims have been resolved.

HBOS Reading – customer review
The Group has now completed its compensation assessment for all 71 business customers within the customer review, with more than 96 per cent of these offers accepted. In total, more than £96 million has been offered of which £78 million has been accepted, in addition to £9 million for ex-gratia payments and £5 million for the reimbursements of legal fees.

The review follows the conclusion of a criminal trial in which a number of individuals, including two former HBOS employees, were convicted of conspiracy to corrupt, fraudulent trading and associated money laundering offences which occurred prior to the acquisition of HBOS by the Group in 2009. The Group has provided a further £15 million in the year ended 31 December 2018 for customer settlements, raising the total amount provided to £115 million and is now nearing the end of the process of paying compensation to the victims of the fraud, including ex-gratia payments and re-imbursements of legal fees.

Vacant leasehold property
Vacant leasehold property provisions are made by reference to a prudent estimate of expected sub-let income, compared to the head rent, and the possibility of disposing of the Group’s interest in the lease, taking into account conditions in the property market. These provisions are reassessed on a biannual basis and will normally run off over the period of under-recovery of the leases concerned, currently averaging three years; where a property is disposed of earlier than anticipated, any remaining balance in the provision relating to that property is released.

Following the sale of TSB Banking Group plc, the Group raised a provision of £665 million in relation to various ongoing commitments; £168 million of this provision remained unutilised at 31 December 2018.

Provisions are made for staff and other costs related to Group restructuring initiatives at the point at which the Group becomes irrevocably committed to the expenditure. At 31 December 2018 provisions of £191 million (31 December 2017: £104 million) were held.

The Group carries provisions of £122 million (2017: £136 million) for indemnities and other matters relating to legacy business disposals in prior years.

Note 47: Contingent liabilities and commitments (extract)
Interchange fees
With respect to multi-lateral interchange fees (MIFs), the Group is not directly involved in the ongoing investigations and litigation (as described below) which involve card schemes such as Visa and Mastercard. However, the Group is a member/licensee of Visa and Mastercard and other card schemes:
– The European Commission continues to pursue competition investigations against Mastercard and Visa probing, amongst other things, MIFs paid in respect of cards issued outside the EEA;
– Litigation brought by retailers continues in the English Courts against both Visa and Mastercard;
– Any ultimate impact on the Group of the above investigations and litigation against Visa and Mastercard remains uncertain at this time.

Visa Inc completed its acquisition of Visa Europe on 21 June 2016. As part of this transaction, the Group and certain other UK banks also entered into a Loss Sharing Agreement (LSA) with Visa Inc, which clarifies the allocation of liabilities between the parties should the litigation referred to above result in Visa Inc being liable for damages payable by Visa Europe. The maximum amount of liability to which the Group may be subject under the LSA is capped at the cash consideration which was received by the Group at completion. Visa Inc may also have recourse to a general indemnity, previously in place under Visa Europe’s Operating Regulations, for damages claims concerning inter or intra-regional MIF setting activities.

LIBOR and other trading rates
In July 2014, the Group announced that it had reached settlements totalling £217 million (at 30 June 2014 exchange rates) to resolve with UK and US federal authorities legacy issues regarding the manipulation several years ago of Group companies’ submissions to the British Bankers’ Association (BBA) London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and Sterling Repo Rate. The Group continues to cooperate with various other government and regulatory authorities, including the Swiss Competition Commission, and a number of US State Attorneys General, in conjunction with their investigations into submissions made by panel members to the bodies that set LIBOR and various other interbank offered rates.

Certain Group companies, together with other panel banks, have also been named as defendants in private lawsuits, including purported class action suits, in the US in connection with their roles as panel banks contributing to the setting of US Dollar, Japanese Yen and Sterling LIBOR and the Australian BBSW Reference Rate. Certain of the plaintiffs’ claims, have been dismissed by the US Federal Court for Southern District of New York (subject to appeals).

Certain Group companies are also named as defendants in (i) UK based claims; and (ii) in 2 Dutch class actions, raising LIBOR manipulation allegations. A number of the claims against the Group in relation to the alleged mis-sale of interest rate hedging products also include allegations of LIBOR manipulation.

It is currently not possible to predict the scope and ultimate outcome on the Group of the various outstanding regulatory investigations not encompassed by the settlements, any private lawsuits or any related challenges to the interpretation or validity of any of the Group’s contractual arrangements, including their timing and scale.

UK shareholder litigation
In August 2014, the Group and a number of former directors were named as defendants in a claim by a number of claimants who held shares in Lloyds TSB Group plc (LTSB) prior to the acquisition of HBOS plc, alleging breaches of duties in relation to information provided to shareholders in connection with the acquisition and the recapitalisation of LTSB. The defendants refute all claims made. A trial commenced in the English High Court on 18 October 2017 and concluded on 5 March 2018 with judgment to follow. It is currently not possible to determine the ultimate impact on the Group (if any).

Tax authorities
The Group has an open matter in relation to a claim for group relief of losses incurred in its former Irish banking subsidiary, which ceased trading on 31 December 2010. In 2013 HMRC informed the Group that their interpretation of the UK rules which allow the offset of such losses denies the claim. If HMRC’s position is found to be correct management estimate that this would result in an increase in current tax liabilities of approximately £770 million (including interest) and a reduction in the Group’s deferred tax asset of approximately £250 million. The Group does not agree with HMRC’s position and, having taken appropriate advice, does not consider that this is a case where additional tax will ultimately fall due. There are a number of other open matters on which the Group is in discussion with HMRC (including the tax treatment of certain costs arising from the divestment of TSB Banking Group plc), none of which is expected to  have a material impact on the financial position of the Group.

Residential mortgage repossessions
In August 2014, the Northern Ireland High Court handed down judgment in favour of the borrowers in relation to three residential mortgage test cases concerning certain aspects of the Group’s practice with respect to the recalculation of contractual monthly instalments of customers in arrears. The FCA has been actively engaged with the industry in relation to these considerations and has published Guidance on the treatment of customers with mortgage payment shortfalls. The Guidance covers remediation for mortgage customers who may have been affected by the way firms calculate these customers’ monthly mortgage instalments. The Group is implementing the Guidance and has now contacted nearly all affected customers with any remaining customers anticipated to be contacted by the end of March 2019.

Mortgage arrears handling activities – FCA investigation
On 26 May 2016, the Group was informed that an enforcement team at the FCA had commenced an investigation in connection with the Group’s mortgage arrears handling activities. This investigation is ongoing and the Group continues to cooperate with the FCA. It is not currently possible to make a reliable assessment of any liability that may result from the investigation including any financial penalty or public censure.

HBOS Reading – FCA investigation
On 7 April 2017 the FCA announced that it had resumed its investigation into the events surrounding the discovery of misconduct within the Reading‑based Impaired Assets team of HBOS. The investigation is ongoing and the Group continues to cooperate with the FCA. It is not currently possible to make a reliable assessment of any liability that may result from the investigation including any financial penalty or public censure.

Other legal actions and regulatory matters
In addition, during the ordinary course of business the Group is subject to other complaints and threatened or actual legal proceedings (including class or group action claims) brought by or on behalf of current or former employees, customers, investors or other third parties, as well as legal and regulatory reviews, challenges, investigations and enforcement actions, both in the UK and overseas. All such material matters are periodically reassessed, with the assistance of external professional advisers where appropriate, to determine the likelihood of the Group incurring a liability. In those instances where it is concluded that it is more likely than not that a payment will be made, a provision is established to management’s best estimate of the amount required at the relevant balance sheet date. In some cases it will not be possible to form a view, for example because the facts are unclear or because further time is needed properly to assess the merits of the case, and no provisions are held in relation to such matters. In these circumstances, specific disclosure in relation to a contingent liability will be made where material. However the Group does not currently expect the final outcome of any such case to have a material adverse effect on its financial position, operations or cash flows.


The contingent liabilities of the Group arise in the normal course of its banking business and it is not practicable to quantify their future financial effect.