Rogers Communications Inc. – Quarterly report – 31 March 2018
Notes to the Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (extract)
New Accounting Standards
We adopted the following new accounting standards effective January 1, 2018.
IFRS 15 – Revenue from contracts with customers (IFRS 15)
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted IFRS 15. IFRS 15 supersedes previous accounting standards for revenue, including IAS 18, Revenue (IAS 18) and IFRIC 13, Customer loyalty programmes (IFRIC 13).
IFRS 15 introduced a single model for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers. This standard applies to all contracts with customers, with only some exceptions, including certain contracts accounted for under other IFRSs. The standard requires revenue to be recognized in a manner that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to a customer and at an amount that reflects the consideration expected to be received in exchange for transferring those goods or services. This is achieved by applying the following five steps:
- identify the contract with a customer;
- identify the performance obligations in the contract;
- determine the transaction price;
- allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
- recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
IFRS 15 also provides guidance relating to the treatment of contract acquisition and contract fulfillment costs.
The application of this new standard has significant impacts on our reported Wireless results, specifically with regards to the timing of recognition and classification of revenue, and the treatment of costs incurred in acquiring customer contracts. The timing of recognition and classification of revenue is affected because, at contract inception, IFRS 15 requires the estimation of total consideration over the contract term and the allocation of that consideration to all performance obligations in the contract based on their relative stand-alone selling prices. This affects our Wireless arrangements that bundle equipment and service together into monthly service fees, which results in an increase to equipment revenue recognized at contract inception and a decrease to service revenue recognized over the course of the contracts. The application of IFRS 15 does not affect our cash flows from operations or the methods and underlying economics through which we transact with our customers.
The treatment of costs incurred in acquiring customer contracts is affected as IFRS 15 requires certain contract acquisition costs (such as sales commissions) to be recognized as an asset and amortized into operating expenses over time. Previously, such costs were expensed as incurred.
In addition, new assets and liabilities have been recognized on our Consolidated Statements of Financial Position. Specifically, a contract asset and contract liability is recognized to account for any timing differences between the revenue recognized and the amounts billed to the customer.
Significant judgment is needed to determine whether a promise to deliver goods or services is considered distinct and in determining the costs that are incremental to obtaining a contract with a customer.
We have made a policy choice to adopt IFRS 15 with full retrospective application, subject to certain practical expedients. As a result, all comparative information in these financial statements has been prepared as if IFRS 15 had been in effect since January 1, 2017. The accounting policies set out in note 4 have been applied in preparing the condensed consolidated financial statements as at and for the three months ended March 31, 2018, the comparative information presented in these condensed consolidated financial statements as at and for the three months ended March 31, 2017, and for the opening condensed consolidated statement of financial position as at January 1, 2017. In preparing our condensed consolidated statements of financial position as at January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017, we have adjusted amounts previously reported in financial statements prepared in accordance with previous IFRS on revenue recognition, including IAS 18 and IFRIC 13.
Upon adoption of, and transition to, IFRS 15, we elected to utilize the following practical expedients, allowing us to:
- recognize the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the assets that we would have otherwise recognized would have been one year or less;
- not disclose, on an annual basis, the unsatisfied portions of performance obligations related to contracts with a duration of one year or less or where the revenue we recognize is equal to the amount invoiced to the customer; and
- not adjust the total consideration over the contract term for effects of a significant financing component, if we expect that the period between when we would transfer our good or service to the customer and when the customer would pay for the good or service would be one year or less.
Reconciliation of condensed consolidated statements of income for the three months ended March 31, 2017
Below is the effect of transition to IFRS 15 on our condensed consolidated statements of income for the three months ended March 31, 2017, all of which pertain to our Wireless segment.
Reconciliation of condensed consolidated statements of financial position as at January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017
Below is the effect of transition to IFRS 15 on our condensed consolidated statements of financial position as at January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017.
The application of IFRS 15 did not affect our cash flow totals from operating, investing, or financing activities.
i) Contract assets and liabilities
Contract assets arise primarily as a result of the difference between revenue recognized on the sale of a wireless device at the onset of a term contract and the cash collected at the point of sale. Revenue recognized at point of sale requires the estimation of total consideration over the contract term and the allocation of that consideration to all performance obligations in the contract based on their relative stand-alone selling prices. For Wireless term contracts, revenue is recognized earlier than previously reported, with a larger allocation to equipment revenue. Prior to the adoption of IFRS 15, the amount allocated to equipment revenue was limited to the non-contingent consideration received at the point of sale when recovery of the remaining consideration in the contract was contingent upon the delivery of future services.
We record a contract liability when we receive payment from a customer in advance of providing goods and services. We account for contract assets and liabilities on a contract-by-contract basis, with each contract being presented as a single net contract asset or net contract liability accordingly.
All contract assets are recorded net of an allowance for expected credit losses, measured in accordance with IFRS 9.
ii) Deferred commission cost assets
Under IFRS 15, we defer incremental commission costs paid to internal and external representatives as a result of obtaining contracts with customers as deferred commission cost assets and amortize them to operating expenses over the pattern of the transfer of goods and services to the customer, which is typically evenly over either 12 or 24 consecutive months.
iii) Inventories and other current liabilities
Under IFRS 15, we determine when the customer obtains control of the distinct good or service. For affected transactions, we have defined our customer as the end subscriber and determined that they obtain control when they receive possession of a wireless device, which typically occurs upon activation. For certain transactions through third-party dealers and other retailers, the timing of when the customer obtains control of a wireless device will be deferred in comparison to our previous policy, where revenue was recognized when the wireless device was delivered and accepted by the independent dealer. This results in a greater inventory balance and a corresponding increase in other current liabilities.
IFRS 9 – Financial instruments (IFRS 9)
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted IFRS 9. In July 2014, the IASB issued the final publication of the IFRS 9 standard, which supersedes IAS 39, Financial Instruments: recognition and measurement (IAS 39). IFRS 9 includes revised guidance on the classification and measurement of financial instruments, new guidance for measuring impairment on financial assets, and new hedge accounting guidance. We have adopted IFRS 9 on a retrospective basis; however, our 2017 comparatives were not restated because it was not possible to do so without the use of hindsight.
Under IFRS 9, financial assets are classified and measured based on the business model in which they are held and the characteristics of their contractual cash flows. IFRS 9 contains three primary measurement categories for financial assets: measured at amortized cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI), and fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL). Under IFRS 9, we have irrevocably elected to present subsequent changes in the fair value of our equity investments that are neither held-for-trading nor contingent consideration arising from a business combination in other comprehensive income with no reclassification of net gains and losses to net income. For these equity investments, any impairment on the instrument will be recorded in other comprehensive income, and cumulative gains or losses in other comprehensive income will not be reclassified into net income, including upon disposal.
As a result, our previous “available-for-sale financial asset reserve” will now be referred to as the “FVTOCI investment reserve”. This reserve represents the accumulated change in fair value of our equity investments that are measured at FVTOCI less accumulated impairment losses related to the investments and accumulated amounts reclassified into equity.
Under IFRS 9, the loss allowance for trade receivables must be calculated using the expected lifetime credit loss and recorded at the time of initial recognition. A portion of our trade receivables required an incremental loss allowance in order to comply with the requirements of IFRS 9; as a result, we recognized a $4 million decrease to accounts receivable and a corresponding decrease to retained earnings within shareholders’ equity effective January 1, 2018. In addition, the expected loss allowance using the lifetime credit loss approach is applied to contract assets under IFRS 15. There is no significant effect on the carrying value of our other financial instruments under IFRS 9 related to this new requirement.
The new hedge accounting guidance aligns hedge accounting more closely with an entity’s risk management objectives and strategies. IFRS 9 does not fundamentally change the types of hedging relationships or the requirement to measure and recognize ineffectiveness; however, it allows more hedging strategies used for risk management to qualify for hedge accounting and introduces more judgment to assess the effectiveness of a hedging relationship, primarily from a qualitative standpoint. This is not expected to have an effect on our reported results and will simplify our application of effectiveness tests going forward.
Below is a summary showing the classification and measurement bases of our financial instruments as at January 1, 2018 as a result of adopting IFRS 9 (along with a comparison to IAS 39).
1 Subsequently measured at fair value with changes recognized in other comprehensive income. The net change subsequent to initial recognition, in the case of investments, is reclassified into net income upon disposal of the investment or when the investment becomes impaired.
2 Subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.
3 The derivatives can be in an asset or liability position at a point in time historically or in the future. For derivatives designated as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes, the effective portion of the hedge is recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income and the ineffective portion of the hedge is recognized immediately into net income.
4 Debt derivatives related to our senior notes and debentures have been designated as hedges for accounting purposes and will be classified as FVTOCI. Debt derivatives related to our credit facility and commercial paper borrowings have not been designated as hedges for accounting purposes and will be classified as FVTPL.
5 Subsequent changes are offset against stock-based compensation expense or recovery in operating costs.
NOTE 4: REVENUE
Contracts with customers
We record revenue from contracts with customers in accordance with the five steps in IFRS 15 as follows:
- identify the contract with a customer;
- identify the performance obligations in the contract;
- determine the transaction price, which is the total consideration provided by the customer;
- allocate the transaction price among the performance obligations in the contact based on their relative fair values; and
- recognize revenue when the relevant criteria are met for each unit.
Many of our products and services are sold in bundled arrangements (e.g. wireless handsets, and voice and data services). Items in these arrangements are accounted for as separate performance obligations if the item meets the definition of a distinct good or service. We also determine whether a customer can modify their contract within predefined terms such that we are not able to enforce the transaction price agreed to, but can only contractually enforce a lower amount. In situations such as these, we allocate revenue between performance obligations using the minimum enforceable rights and obligations and any excess amount is recognized as revenue as it is earned.
Revenue for each performance obligation is recognized either over time (e.g. services) or at a point in time (e.g. equipment). For performance obligations satisfied over time, revenue is recognized as the services are provided. These services are typically provided, and thus recognized, on a monthly basis. Revenue for performance obligations satisfied at a point in time is recognized when control of the item (or service) transfers to the customer. Typically, this is when the customer activates the goods (e.g. in the case of a wireless handset) or has physical possession of the goods (e.g. other equipment). Below, we have outlined the nature of the various performance obligations in our contracts with customers and when we recognize performance on those obligations.
We also recognize interest revenue on credit card receivables using the effective interest method in accordance with IFRS 9.
Contract assets and liabilities
We record a contract asset when we have provided goods and services to our customer but our right to related consideration for the performance obligation is conditional on satisfying other performance obligations. Contract assets primarily relate to our rights to consideration for the transfer of wireless handsets.
We record a contract liability when we receive payment from a customer in advance of providing goods and services. This includes subscriber deposits, cable installation fees, deposits related to Toronto Blue Jays ticket sales, and amounts subscribers pay for services and subscriptions that will be provided in future periods.
We account for contract assets and liabilities on a contract-by-contract basis, with each contract presented as either a net contract asset or a net contract liability accordingly.
Deferred commission cost assets
We defer the incremental costs we incur to obtain or fulfill a contract with a customer over their expected period of benefit to the extent they are recoverable. These costs include certain commissions paid to internal and external representatives. We therefore defer them as deferred commission cost assets in other assets and amortize them to operating costs over the pattern of the transfer of goods and services to the customer, which is typically evenly over either 12 or 24 consecutive months.
Use of Estimates and Judgments
We use estimates in the following key areas:
- determining the transaction price of our contracts requires estimating the amount of revenue we expect to be entitled to for delivering the performance obligations within a contract; and
- determining the stand-alone selling price of performance obligations and the allocation of the transaction price between performance obligations.
Determining the transaction price
The transaction price is the amount of consideration that is enforceable and to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for the goods and services we have promised to our customer. We determine the transaction price by considering the terms of the contract and business practices that are customary within that particular line of business. Discounts, rebates, refunds, credits, price concessions, incentives, penalties, and other similar items are reflected in the transaction price at contract inception.
Determining the stand-alone selling price and the allocation of the transaction price
The transaction price is allocated to performance obligations based on the relative stand-alone selling prices of the distinct goods or services in the contract. The best evidence of a stand-alone selling price is the observable price of a good or service when the entity sells that good or service separately in similar circumstances and to similar customers. If a stand-alone selling price is not directly observable, we estimate the stand-alone selling price taking into account reasonably available information relating to the market conditions, entity-specific factors, and the class of customer.
In determining the stand-alone selling price, we allocate revenue between performance obligations based on expected minimum enforceable amounts to which Rogers is entitled. Any amounts above the minimum enforceable amounts are recognized as revenue as they are earned.
We make significant judgments in determining whether a promise to deliver goods or services is considered distinct and in determining the costs that are incremental to obtaining a contract with a customer.
Distinct goods and services
We make judgments in determining whether a promise to deliver goods or services is considered distinct. We account for individual products and services separately if they are distinct (i.e. if a product or service is separately identifiable from other items in the bundled package and if the customer can benefit from it). The consideration is allocated between separate products and services in a bundle based on their stand-alone selling prices. For items that are not sold separately (e.g. third-party gift cards), we estimate stand-alone selling prices using the adjusted market assessment approach.
Determining costs to obtain or fulfill a contract
Determining the costs we incur to obtain or fulfill a contract that meet the deferral criteria within IFRS 15 requires us to make significant judgments. We expect incremental commission fees paid to internal and external representatives as a result of obtaining contracts with customers to be recoverable.
Below is a summary of the current and long-term portions of contract assets from contracts with customers as well as significant changes in those balances during the period.
Deferred Commission Cost Assets
Below is a summary of the changes in the deferred commission cost assets recognized from the incremental costs incurred to obtain contracts with customers during the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. We believe these amounts to be recoverable through the revenue earned from the related contracts. The deferred commission cost assets are presented within other current assets (when they will be amortized into net income within twelve months of the date of the financial statements) or other long-term assets.