Uncertain tax positions, provisions, estimates, principal risks and uncertainties

Koninklijke Philips N.V. – Annual report – 31 December 2018

Industry: manufacturing

6 Risk management (extract)

6.6 Financial risks (extract)

Philips is exposed to tax risks which could have a significant adverse financial impact.

Philips is exposed to tax risks which could result in double taxation, penalties and interest payments. The source of the risks could originate from local tax rules and regulations as well as in the international and EU regulatory frameworks. These include transfer pricing risks on internal cross-border deliveries of goods and services, tax risks related to acquisitions and divestments, tax risks related to permanent establishments, tax risks relating to tax loss, interest and tax credits carried forward and potential changes in tax law that could result in higher tax expenses and payments. The risks may have a significant impact on local financial tax results, which, in turn, could adversely affect Philips’ financial condition and operating results.

The value of the deferred tax assets, such as tax losses carried forward, is subject to the availability of sufficient taxable income within the tax loss-carry-forward period, but also to the availability of sufficient taxable income within the foreseeable future in the case of tax losses carried forward with an indefinite carry-forward period. The ultimate realization of the company’s deferred tax assets, including tax losses and tax credits carried forward, depends on the generation of future taxable income in the countries where the temporary differences, unused tax losses and unused tax credits were incurred, and on periods during which the deferred tax assets become deductible. Additionally, in certain instances, realization of such deferred tax assets depends on the successful execution of tax planning strategies. Accordingly, there can be no absolute assurance that all deferred tax assets, such as (net) tax losses and credits carried forward, will be realized.

For further details, please refer to the tax risks paragraph in Income taxes, starting on page 138.

Notes to the Consolidated financial statements of the Philips Group (extract)

1 Significant accounting policies (extract)

Use of estimates

The preparation of the Consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. These estimates inherently contain a degree of uncertainty. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

In the process of applying the accounting policies, management has made estimates and assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the reported amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, as well as to the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the Consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The company evaluates these estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis and bases the estimates on historical experience, current and expected future outcomes, third-party evaluations and various other assumptions that Philips believes are reasonable under the circumstances. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments may change due to circumstances beyond the company’s control and are reflected in the assumptions if and when they occur. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities as well as identifying and assessing the accounting treatment with respect to commitments and contingencies. The company revises material estimates if changes occur in the circumstances or if there is new information or experience on which an estimate was or can be based.

The areas where the most significant judgments and estimates are made are goodwill, deferred tax asset recoverability, impairments, classification and measurement of financial instruments, the accounting for an arrangement containing a lease, revenue recognition, tax risks and other contingencies, assessment of control, classification of assets and liabilities held for sale and the presentation of items of profit and loss and cash flows as continuing or discontinued, as well as when determining the fair values of acquired identifiable intangible assets, contingent considerations and investments based on an assessment of future cash flows (e.g. earn out arrangements as part of acquisitions). For further discussion of these significant judgements and estimates, reference is made to the respective accounting policies and notes within these Consolidated financial statements that relate to the above topics.

Further judgment is applied when analysing impairments of goodwill and intangible assets not yet ready for use that are performed annually and whenever a triggering event has occurred to determine whether the carrying value exceeds the recoverable amount. These analyses are generally based on estimates of discounted future cash flows. Furthermore, the company applies judgment when actuarial assumptions are established to anticipate future events that are used in calculating post-employment benefit expenses and liabilities. These factors include assumptions with respect to interest rates, rates of increase in healthcare costs, rates of future compensation increases, turnover rates and life expectancy.

8 Income taxes (extract)

Tax risks

Philips is exposed to tax risks. With regard to these tax risks a liability is recognized if, as a result of a past event, Philips has an obligation that can be estimated reliably and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. These uncertain positions are presented as Other tax liabilities in Other liabilities, starting on page 160 and include, among others, the following:

US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

Philips assessed the impact of the material aspects of the US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on its current and deferred tax assets and liabilities. These reported amounts may be subject to estimation uncertainty and measurement adjustments may need to be made in subsequent reporting periods as Philips will get more accurate information on the impact of the Act and the modalities of its application. The main uncertainties relate to the availability of net interest expense carryforwards and the amount of tax earnings and profits subject to tax under the mandatory deemed repatriation provisions.

Transfer pricing risks

Philips has issued transfer pricing directives, which are in accordance with international guidelines such as those of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development. In order to reduce the transfer pricing uncertainties, monitoring procedures are carried out by Group Tax to safeguard the correct implementation of the transfer pricing directives. However, tax disputes can arise due to inconsistent transfer pricing regimes and different views on “at arm’s length” pricing. 

Tax risks on general and specific service agreements and licensing agreements

Due to the centralization of certain activities (such as research and development, IT and group functions), costs are also centralized. As a consequence, these costs and/or revenues must be allocated to the beneficiaries, i.e. the various Philips entities. For that purpose, service contracts such as intra-group service agreements and licensing agreements are signed with a large number of group entities. Tax authorities review these intra-group service and licensing agreements, and may reject the implemented intra-group charges. Furthermore, buy in/out situations in the case of (de)mergers could affect the cost allocation resulting from the intragroup service agreements between countries. The same applies to the specific service agreements.

Tax risks due to disentanglements and acquisitions

When a subsidiary of Philips is disentangled, or a new company is acquired, tax risks may arise. Philips creates merger and acquisition (M&A) teams for these disentanglements or acquisitions. In addition to representatives from the involved business, these teams consist of specialists from various group functions and are formed, among other things, to identify tax risks and to reduce potential tax claims.

Tax risks due to permanent establishments

A permanent establishment may arise when a Philips entity has activities in another country, tax claims could arise in both countries on the same income.

22 Other liabilities (extract)

Other non-current liabilities

Other non-current liabilities are summarized as follows:


The other non-current liabilities decreased with EUR 221 million. This increase is mainly driven by the change of presentation of balances included in deferred income.

For further details on tax related liabilities refer to Income taxes, starting on page 138.