Koninklijke Philips N.V. – Annual report – 31 December 2020
6 Risk management (extract)
6.6 Financial risks (extract)
Philips is exposed to tax risks which could have a significant adverse financial impact.
Philips is exposed to tax risks which could result in double taxation, penalties and interest payments. The source of the risks could originate from local tax rules and regulations as well as international and EU regulatory frameworks. These include transfer pricing risks on internal cross-border deliveries of goods and services, tax risks related to acquisitions and divestments, tax risks related to permanent establishments, tax risks relating to tax loss, interest and tax credits carried forward, and potential changes in tax law that could result in higher tax expenses and payments. The risks may have a significant impact on local financial tax results, which, in turn, could adversely affect Philips’ financial condition and operating results. The value of the deferred tax assets, such as tax losses carried forward, is subject to the availability of sufficient taxable income within the tax loss-carry-forward period, but also to the availability of sufficient taxable income within the foreseeable future in the case of tax losses carried forward with an indefinite carry-forward period. The ultimate realization of the company’s deferred tax assets is uncertain. Accordingly, there can be no absolute assurance that all deferred tax assets, such as (net) tax losses and credits carried forward, will be realized.
Risk response: Philips’ tax policy, strategy and planning provides overarching governance. The global Philips tax organization designs and implements this and provides tax advice, ensures tax compliance, including accounting and reporting, and deploys our tax risk management and control framework to ensure adherence to up-to-date tax policies. The Group Tax department is in charge of establishing, maintaining and overseeing the tax policies. Potential risks are carefully monitored and dealt with by tax specialists from relevant areas (e.g. corporate income tax, transfer pricing, VAT, wage tax and tax accounting). A group of Market Tax Managers supports managing the risks and overall tax governance by applying their knowledge of local markets (e.g. introduction of new tax law), among others in monthly reviews.
Please also refer to the disclosure Income taxes, starting on page 155 and the Country Activity and Tax Report.
Notes to the Consolidated financial statements of the Philips Group (extract)
1 Significant accounting policies (extract)
Use of estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. These estimates inherently contain a degree of uncertainty. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
In the process of applying the accounting policies, management has made estimates and assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the reported amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, as well as to the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the Consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The company evaluates these estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis and bases the estimates on historical experience, current and expected future outcomes, third-party evaluations and various other assumptions that Philips believes are reasonable under the circumstances. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments may change due to circumstances beyond the company’s control and are reflected in the assumptions if and when they occur. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities as well as identifying and assessing the accounting treatment with respect to commitments and contingencies. The company revises material estimates if changes occur in the circumstances or if there is new information or experience on which an estimate was or can be based. Reference is made to the note on COVID-19, starting on page 142 which includes further details on the impact of the pandemic on these significant judgments and estimates.
The areas where the most significant judgments and estimates are made are goodwill, deferred tax asset recoverability, valuation of inventories, impairments, classification and measurement of financial instruments, the accounting for an arrangement containing a lease, the assessment whether a lease option to extend or cancel a lease in which the company is a lessee is reasonably certain to be exercised or not, revenue recognition, tax risks and other contingencies, assessment of control, classification of assets and liabilities held for sale and the presentation of items of profit and loss and cash flows as continuing or discontinued, as well as when determining the fair values of acquired identifiable intangible assets, contingent considerations and investments based on an assessment of future cash flows (e.g. earn out arrangements as part of acquisitions). For further discussion of these significant judgements and estimates, reference is made to the respective accounting policies and notes within these Consolidated financial statements that relate to the above topics.
Further judgment is applied when analyzing impairments of goodwill and intangible assets not yet ready for use that are performed annually and whenever a triggering event has occurred to determine whether the carrying value exceeds the recoverable amount. These analyses are generally based on estimates of discounted future cash flows. Furthermore, the company applies judgment when actuarial assumptions are established to anticipate future events that are used in calculating post-employment benefit expenses and liabilities. These factors include assumptions with respect to interest rates, rates of increase in healthcare costs, rates of future compensation increases, turnover rates and life expectancy.
9 Income taxes (extract)
Philips is exposed to tax risks and uncertainty over tax treatments. For particular tax treatments that are not expected to be accepted by tax authorities, Philips either recognizes a liability or reflects the uncertainty in the recognition and measurement of its current and deferred tax assets and tax attributes. For the measurement of the uncertainty, Philips uses the most likely amount or the expected value of the tax treatment. The expected liabilities resulting from the uncertain tax treatments are included in non-current tax liabilities (2020: EUR 291 million, 2019: EUR 186 million, increase due to lower tax losses or similar tax carryforwards that can be used if uncertain tax treatments were settled for the presumed amount at balance sheet date). The positions include, among others, the following:
Transfer pricing risks
Philips has issued transfer pricing directives, which are in accordance with international guidelines such as those of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development. In order to reduce the transfer pricing uncertainties, monitoring procedures are carried out by Group Tax to safeguard the correct implementation of the transfer pricing directives. However, tax disputes can arise due to inconsistent transfer pricing regimes and different views on “at arm’s length” pricing.
Tax risks on general and specific service agreements and licensing agreements
Due to the centralization of certain activities (such as research and development, IT and group functions), costs are also centralized. As a consequence, these costs and/or revenues must be allocated to the beneficiaries, i.e. the various Philips entities. For that purpose, service contracts such as intra-group service agreements and licensing agreements are signed with a large number of group entities. Tax authorities review these intra-group service and licensing agreements, and may reject the implemented intra-group charges. Furthermore, buy in/out situations in the case of (de)mergers could affect the cost allocation resulting from the intragroup service agreements between countries. The same applies to the specific service agreements.
Tax risks due to disentanglements and acquisitions
When a subsidiary of Philips is disentangled, or a new company is acquired, tax risks may arise. Philips creates merger and acquisition (M&A) teams for these disentanglements or acquisitions. In addition to representatives from the involved business, these teams consist of specialists from various group functions and are formed, among other things, to identify tax risks and to reduce potential tax claims.
Tax risks due to permanent establishments
A permanent establishment may arise when a Philips entity has activities in another country, tax claims could arise in both countries on the same income.