Nidec Corporation – Annual report – 31 March 2019
3. Significant accounting policies (extract)
(11) Financial instruments (extract)
(vi) Derivatives and hedge accounting
NIDEC is engaged in derivative transactions and mainly uses foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swap agreements, currency swap agreements, and commodity futures contracts to manage its exposure to risks from changes in foreign exchange rates, interest rates, and commodity prices. NIDEC does not hold derivative financial instruments for trading purpose. Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value with transaction costs recognized in net profit or loss as incurred, and then subsequently measured at fair value with changes in fair value generally recognized in net profit or loss unless hedge accounting is applied where changes in cash flows from the hedging instrument can offset changes in cash flows from the hedged item to an extent that an objective assessment that the hedging relationship meets the hedge effectiveness requirements can be made. At the inception of the hedging relationship there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship between the hedging instruments and the hedged items, NIDEC’s risk management objective, strategy for undertaking the hedge, methods for assessing whether a hedging relationship meets the hedge effectiveness requirements and methods for measuring hedge effectiveness and hedge ineffectiveness. NIDEC judges that the hedge is effective if all of the following requirements are met:
• there is an economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instruments;
• the effect of credit risk does not dominate the value changes that result from that economic relationship; and
• the hedge ratio of the hedging relationship is the same as that resulting from the quantity of the hedged item that the entity actually hedges and the quantity of the hedging instrument that the entity actually uses to hedge that quantity of hedged item.
NIDEC also formally assesses, both at and after the hedge’s inception, whether the derivatives used in hedging transactions are effective in offsetting changes in cash flows of the hedged items. When it is determined that the hedge is not effective or that it has ceased to be effective, NIDEC discontinues hedge accounting prospectively.
Cash flow hedge is accounted for as follows:
When derivative instruments are designated as hedging instruments to offset against the change in cash flows arising from the specific risk that relates to recognized assets or liabilities or highly probable forecast transactions that could affect profit or loss, the effective portion of changes in fair value of derivatives is recognized as cash flow hedges in other components of equity. The ineffective portion of changes in fair value of hedging derivative instruments is recognized in net profit or loss. The balance of cash flow hedges in other comprehensive income in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income is reclassified to the same accounting item as hedging instrument in the statements of income in the same period or periods during which the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit for the year. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset (for example, inventories, property, plant and equipment, etc.) or a liability, the gains and losses previously deferred in equity are transferred from equity and included directly in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset or liability.
If the transactions do not meet the criteria of hedge accounting, or if the hedging instruments expire, or are sold, terminated or exercised, or if the designations have been revoked, the application of hedge accounting shall be prospectively terminated. When a cash flow hedge is discontinued, the balance of cash flow hedges already recognized in other comprehensive income remain in the same account until forecast transaction impacts profit for the year. If it is probable that the forecast transaction will not occur, the balance of cash flow hedge is transferred into net profit or loss immediately.
NIDEC manages the exposure of the fluctuations in currency, interest rate and commodity prices through the use of derivative financial instruments which include foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swap agreements, currency swap agreements and commodity futures contracts. NIDEC does not hold derivative financial instruments for trading purpose. NIDEC is exposed to credit risk in the event of non-performance by counterparties to the derivative contracts, but such risk is considered to be minimal due to high credit rating of the counterparties.
(1) Cash flow hedges
NIDEC uses foreign exchange forward contracts and commodity futures contracts designated as cash flow hedges to protect against currency risks and commodity price risks inherent in a portion of its forecasted transactions related to purchase commitments.
(2) Derivatives not designated as hedges
NIDEC is unable or has elected not to apply hedge accounting to some of these derivatives from time to time. The changes in the fair value of these contracts are included in “Derivative gain (loss)”.
Derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are as follows:
As of March 31, 2018
As of March 31, 2019
Derivatives not designated as hedges are as follows:
As of March 31, 2018
As of March 31, 2019
Carrying amounts of cash flow hedge reserve are as follows:
The effects of derivatives designated as cash flow hedges on profit or loss are as follows:
For the year ended March 31, 2018
For the year ended March 31, 2019
The amount of hedge ineffectiveness or exclusion from the assessment of hedge effectiveness recognized in profit or loss was not material for the years ended March 31, 2018 and 2019.
As at March 31, 2019, the maximum length of time over which NIDEC hedged its exposure to variability in future cash flows for forecast transactions was approximately 23 months.
The effects of derivatives not designated as hedges on profit or loss are as follows: