IFRS 15 adopted, modified retrospective method, policies, judgements, certain disclosures, effect on current period, telecoms

Deutsche Telekom AG – Annual report – 31 December 2018

Industry: telecoms

INITIAL APPLICATION OF STANDARDS, INTERPRETATIONS, AND AMENDMENTS IN THE FINANCIAL YEAR (extract)

In May 2014, the IASB issued IFRS 15 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” Application of the standard is mandatory for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018. This standard provides a single, principles-based five-step model for the determination and recognition of revenue to be applied to all contracts with customers.

It replaces, in particular, IAS 18 and IAS 11 and has a material effect on the presentation of Deutsche Telekom’s results of operations and financial position. Depending on the business model applied, the new provisions and the related changes in the accounting principles applied by Deutsche Telekom affect the following issues in particular:

  • In the case of multiple-element arrangements (e.g., mobile contract plus handset), the total transaction price of the bundled contract is allocated among the individual, separate performance obligations based on their relative standalone selling prices, i.e., based on a ratio of the standalone selling price of each element to the aggregated standalone selling prices of the contractual performance obligations. In contrast to the previous accounting treatment, the relative standalone selling price of an individual element and thus the revenue recognized for this unit of accounting is no longer limited to that proportion of the total arrangement consideration to be provided by the customer, the payment of which does not depend on the delivery of additional elements (contingent revenue cap). As a result, the revenue to be recognized for products delivered in advance (e.g., mobile handsets) that are sold at a subsidized price in combination with a long-term service contract was limited by this subsidized price. Under IFRS 15, this limitation no longer applies, i.e., in the case of subsidized products delivered in advance, a larger portion of the total remuneration is attributable to the element delivered in advance (mobile handset), requiring earlier recognition of revenue under the new regulations. This leads to the recognition of what is known as a contract asset – a receivable arising from the customer contract that has not yet legally come into existence – in the statement of financial position. The contract asset is reduced over the remaining contract period, lowering revenue from the other performance obligations (in this case: mobile service revenues) compared with the amounts billed.
  • At the same time, it results in higher revenue from the sale of goods and merchandise and in lower revenue from the provision of services.
  • The extent of the changes resulting from the initial application of IFRS 15 that are described above therefore largely depends on the business models used by the subsidiary in question. Whereas the sale of subsidized handsets in connection with the conclusion of service contracts in the consumer business is still common in the Germany operating segment, handsets are not sold at a discount at all or only to a limited extent in the United States and to some extent in the Europe operating segments; payment-by-installment models or lease models are offered to customers instead.
  • Customer activation fees and other advance one-time payments by the customer that do not constitute consideration for a separate performance obligation are classed as contract liabilities, and are deferred and recognized as revenue over the (remaining) contract period.
  • Expenses for sales commissions (costs of obtaining a customer contract (contract costs)) must be capitalized and recognized over the estimated customer retention period. The expenses are disclosed in Deutsche Telekom’s income statement, not under depreciation and amortization but – depending on the sales channel – as goods and services purchased or personnel costs.
  • In the indirect sales channel, reimbursements explicitly or implicitly included in commissions paid to third-party retailers for handset subsidies granted by those retailers are recognized as a reduction of the service revenues over the contract term rather than as an expense. This ensures that the amount of the service revenues generated with retail customers for identical rate plans does not depend on the type of sales channel.
  • On first-time application of the standard, both total assets and shareholders’ equity increased due to the capitalization of contract assets and contract costs for contracts not yet fully completed.
  • In cases where “material rights” are granted – such as offering additional discounts for future purchases of further products – a portion of the transaction price must be deferred as a contract liability and is not recognized as revenue until this additional performance obligation has been satisfied or has lapsed.
  • Contract liabilities (which, as deferred revenue, were already recognized as liabilities in the past) must be netted against the contract assets for each customer contract.
  • For the purposes of determining whether Deutsche Telekom sells products for its own account (principal = gross revenue) or for the account of others (agent = net revenue), there are no material changes for the existing agreements.

As regards IFRS 15, Deutsche Telekom utilizes the following accounting options:

  • Deutsche Telekom applies the option for simplified initial application, limiting the retroactive application of IFRS 15 to contracts that have not yet been completely fulfilled at the date of initial application. The contracts that have not yet been completely fulfilled as of January 1, 2018 are accounted for as if they had been recognized in accordance with IFRS 15 from the very beginning. The cumulative effect arising from the transition is recognized as an adjustment to the opening balance of equity in the year of initial application. Prior-year comparatives are not adjusted; instead, Deutsche Telekom provides an explanation of the reasons for the changes in items in the statement of financial position and the income statement for the current period as a result of applying IFRS 15 for the first time.
  • A significant financing component is not considered for the amount and timing of revenue recognition if the period between when a promised good or service is transferred to the customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will be one year or less.
  • In general, contract costs whose amortization period would not be more than one year are immediately recognized as an expense.

 

The adjustments made to items in the statement of financial position as of January 1, 2018 and attributable to IFRS 15 are as follows a:

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a The overview above contains only those items of the statement of financial position that are affected by the first-time application of IFRS 15.

b Carrying amounts as of January 1, 2018 are shown before impairment losses on contract assets recognized in accordance with IFRS 9. Please refer to the explanations in regard to the initial application of IFRS 9 in this section.

c For reasons of simplification, the figure is combined to show the cumulative effect of the transition to IFRS 15 to be recognized directly in equity.

The remeasurement effects are mainly attributable to the first-time recognition of

  • contract assets in the amount of EUR 1.6 billion that, under IFRS 15, would have resulted in the earlier recognition of revenue, in particular from the sale of goods and merchandise;
  • capitalized contract costs of EUR 1.1 billion that, under IFRS 15, would have resulted in the later recognition of selling expenses; and ƒƒ
  • contract liabilities totaling EUR 0.6 billion that, under IFRS 15, would have resulted in the later recognition of revenue.

After deferred tax liabilities totaling EUR 0.6 billion (net) and other minor effects were taken into account, the transition to the new standard as of January 1, 2018 resulted in a cumulative effect that increased retained earnings by EUR 1.8 billion and included the shares attributable to non-controlling interests.

The reclassifications mainly concern the following items:

  • The receivables from long-term construction contracts (EUR 0.2 billion) that, under IAS 11, were recognized under trade and other receivables as of December 31, 2017 are classified as contract assets under IFRS 15.
  • The deferred revenue of EUR 1.8 billion recognized under other liabilities as of December 31, 2017 is recognized as contract liabilities in accordance with IFRS 15.

Due to the remeasurements described above, the carrying amounts of the cash-generating units that must be tested for impairment in accordance with IAS 36 increased when IFRS 15 was applied for the first time on January 1, 2018. As a result, the carrying amounts of the Romania cash-generating unit in the Europe operating segment and of the Netherlands cash-generating unit in the Group Development operating segment exceeded in each case the recoverable amounts for these units. Consequently, in each case a goodwill impairment had to be recognized directly in equity as of January 1, 2018 for an aggregate amount of EUR 0.1 billion. For further information, please refer to Note 6 “Intangible assets,” page 184 et seq., and Note 7 “Property, plant and equipment,” page 191 et seq.

Comparative figures for the items of the financial statements affected by the first-time application of IFRS 15

The following tables contain relevant items from the financial statements as of December 31, 2018 in accordance with IFRS 15 as well as the previous accounting treatment in accordance with IAS 18/IAS 11 and related interpretations:

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Under IAS 18/IAS 11, trade and other receivables would have included receivables from long-term construction contracts, which are recognized as contract assets under IFRS 15.

Due to the transition to IFRS 15, contract assets are recognized for the first time and amortized, and capitalized contract costs are recognized as assets for the first time and amortized.

Under IAS 18/IAS 11, other liabilities would have included deferred revenue, which, under IFRS 15, is either recognized as contract liabilities or netted with contract assets.

The differences in the amounts recognized under deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are due to remeasurement effects in connection with the first-time and continuing application of IFRS 15 in the 2018 financial year.

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Without the effect of IFRS 15, revenue would have amounted to EUR 75.6 billion, EUR 0.1 billion lower than reported. Effects on revenue development are attributable mainly to amortization of the Contract assets/liabilities recognized in the statement of financial position over the (remaining) contract period in the 2018 financial year. This amortization is recognized as a reduction or an increase in revenue. These items also include reimbursements for handset subsidies granted by third-party retailers in the indirect sales channel. These reimbursements are a component of the commissions paid to those retailers. The subsidies are now no longer recognized as an expense, but as a reduction of the service revenues over the contract term. Under other business models, revenue was increased due to the capitalization and subsequent amortization of expenses for sales commissions (contract costs) under goods and services purchased; these expenses were previously recognized as revenue-reducing effects.

Adjusted for the effects of IFRS 15, goods and services purchased and personnel costs would have come in at EUR 38.5 billion and EUR 16.5 billion, respectively, and would thus have been a total of EUR 0.4 billion higher. This effect is attributable to the capitalization of expenses for sales commissions, which, under IAS 18/IAS 11, would have been recognized immediately in profit or loss either under goods and services purchased (dealer commissions) or personnel costs (employee commissions). It was only partially offset by the amortization of capitalized expenses for sales commissions.

ACCOUNTING POLICIES (extract)

NET REVENUE, CONTRACT ASSETS AND LIABILITIES/CONTRACT COSTS

Revenues include all revenues from the ordinary business activities of Deutsche Telekom. Ordinary activities do not only refer to the core business but also to other recurring sales of goods or rendering of services. However, gains from sales of items of property, plant and equipment or intangible assets are not classified as revenue but as other operating income. All ancillary income in connection with the delivery of goods and rendering of services in the course of an entity’s ordinary activities is also presented as revenue. Examples include dunning fees, contractual penalties, and default interest. Income from interest added back from long-term customer receivables and contract assets is also considered ancillary income in the course of an entity’s ordinary activities where the underlying receivables or contract assets have resulted in the recognition of revenue. Revenues are recorded net of value-added tax and other taxes collected from customers that are remitted to governmental authorities.

They are recognized in accordance with the provision of goods or services, provided that collectability of the consideration is probable. For service contracts with a continuous service provision, the contractually agreed total consideration is recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the minimum contract term, regardless of the payment pattern.

A contract asset must be recognized if Deutsche Telekom recorded revenue for fulfillment of a contractual performance obligation before the customer paid consideration or before – irrespective of when payment is due – the requirements for billing and thus the recognition of a receivable exist.

A contract liability must be recognized when the customer paid consideration or a receivable from the customer is due before Deutsche Telekom fulfilled a contractual performance obligation and thus recognized revenue. In a customer contract, contract liabilities must be set off against contract assets.

Multiple-element arrangements involving the delivery or provision of multiple products or services must be separated into distinct performance obligations, each with its own separate revenue contribution that is recognized as revenue on fulfillment of the obligation to the customer. At Deutsche Telekom, this especially concerns the sale or lease of a mobile handset or other telecommunications equipment combined with the conclusion of a mobile or fixed-network telecommunications contract. The total transaction price of the bundled contract is allocated among the individual performance obligations based on their relative – possibly estimated – standalone selling prices, i.e., based on a ratio of the standalone selling price of each separate element to the aggregated standalone selling prices of the contractual performance obligations. As a result, the revenue to be recognized for products (often delivered in advance) such as mobile handsets that are sold at a subsidized price in combination with a long-term service contract is higher than the amount billed or collected. This leads to the recognition of what is known as a contract asset – a receivable arising from the customer contract that has not yet legally come into existence – in the statement of financial position. The contract asset is reversed and reduced over the remaining minimum contract period, lowering revenue from the other performance obligations (in this case: mobile service revenues) compared with the amounts billed. In contrast to the amounts billed, this results in higher revenue from the sale of goods and merchandise and lower revenue from the provision of services.

Customer activation fees and other advance one-time payments by the customer that do not constitute consideration for a separate performance obligation are classed as contract liabilities and are deferred and recognized as revenue over the minimum contract term or, in exceptional cases (e.g., in the case of contracts that can be terminated at any time) over the expected contract period. The same applies to fees for installation and set-up activities that do not have an independent value for the customer.

As distinct from promotional offers, options to purchase additional goods or services free of charge or at a discount are separate performance obligations (material rights) for which part of the revenue is deferred as a contract liability until the option is exercised or expires, providing the discount on future purchases is an implicit component of the consideration for the current contract and is also significant. The measure of significance is whether the decision by the (average) customer to enter into the current contract is likely to have been significantly influenced by their right to the future discount. Offers for volume discounts for the purchase of additional core products of an entity (e.g., a discount offered on an additional fixed-network contract for mobile customers) are classed by Deutsche Telekom as promotional offers to be excluded from consideration.

Long-term customer receivables (e.g., arising from sales of handsets in installments), contract assets (e.g., arising from the subsidized sale of a handset in connection with the conclusion of a long-term customer contract) or contract liabilities (e.g., arising from a prepayment by the customer) are recognized at present value if the financing component is significant in relation to the total contract value (i.e., including those performance obligations that do not contain a financing component). The discount rate also reflects the customer credit risk. Deutsche Telekom makes use of the option not to recognize a significant financing component if the period between when a good or service is transferred to the customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will be one year or less.

Payments to customers including credits or subsequent discounts are recognized as a reduction in revenue unless the payment constitutes consideration for a distinct good or service from the customer, for which the fair value can be reasonably estimated.

Gross vs. net presentation: In cases where a company is in an intermediary position between another supplier/vendor (e.g., manufacturer, wholesaler) and a retail customer, it must be assessed whether the company itself supplies the relevant product or provides the service requested by the customer as the principal or whether the company merely acts as the agent for the supplier. The outcome determines whether the entity can recognize revenue on a gross basis (as the principal) or on a net basis after deducting the costs to the supplier (as the agent). For Deutsche Telekom, the question arises particularly in the case of digital services (e.g., streaming services, cloud-based software as a service) purchased from third parties and sold to retail customers as part of Deutsche Telekom’s product portfolio. In summary, in case of rights to another party’s goods or services, Deutsche Telekom considers itself to be the principal vis-à-vis the retail customer if all of the following conditions are met and thus reports gross revenues:

  • Deutsche Telekom either has a contractual enforceable right to receive the predefined services “on demand” at predefined (fixed or variable) prices, and accordingly the other party has entered into an enforceable ongoing commitment to provide them, or Deutsche Telekom has entered into a material minimum purchase commitment.
  • Deutsche Telekom sells access to the other party’s services in its own name and for its own account under a contract between Deutsche Telekom and the retail customer.
  • Deutsche Telekom has discretion in setting the price for the other party’s services sold for its own account.

Contract costs comprise the incremental costs of obtaining a contract (mainly sales commission paid to employees and third-party retailers in the direct and indirect sales channel) and the costs to fulfill a contract. These must be capitalized if it can be assumed that the costs will be compensated by future revenue from the contract. Incremental costs of obtaining a contract are additional costs that would have not been incurred had the contract not been concluded. Costs to fulfill a contract are costs relating directly to a contract that are incurred after contract inception and serve the purpose of fulfilling the contract but are incurred prior to fulfillment and cannot be capitalized under any other standard. Deutsche Telekom makes use of the option to immediately recognize contract costs whose amortization period would not be more than one year as an expense.

The capitalized contract costs are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated customer retention period. The expenses are disclosed in Deutsche Telekom’s income statement, not under depreciation and amortization but – depending on the sales channel – as goods and services purchased or personnel costs.

In the indirect sales channel, third-party retailers often arrange service contracts on behalf of and for the account of Deutsche Telekom (as the agent) in connection with the sale of subsidized handsets in their own name and for their own account (as the principal). In such cases, the retailers receive commission in an amount that explicitly or implicitly compensates them for the handset subsidy granted. As in the case of multiple-element arrangements in the direct sales channel, the customer ultimately covers the handset subsidy by paying a price above the standalone selling price for the service contract. Deutsche Telekom considers this an implicit promise to the customer that on conclusion of this service contract they will be able to purchase a handset at a discounted price. The only difference between this promise and the purchase of a service in the direct sales channel is that it is not Deutsche Telekom that is granting the discount as part of a multiple-element arrangement but a third-party retailer that is compensated for it by Deutsche Telekom through the commission it receives for arranging the service contract. As, from an economic substance perspective, these payments constitute indirect payments by Deutsche Telekom to customers, the portion of the commission payments attributable to the (implicit) cost reimbursements to the retailer is not capitalized as contract costs but as a contract asset and is therefore recognized as a reduction of the service revenues over the contract term rather than as an expense. This ensures that the amount of the service revenues generated with retail customers for identical rate plans does not depend on the type of sales channel.

Depending on the business model, revenue recognition at Deutsche Telekom is as follows:

The mobile and fixed-network business of the Germany, United States, Europe, and Group Development operating segments includes mobile services, narrow- and broadband access to the fixed network and the internet, television via internet, connection and roaming fees billed to other mobile operators (wholesale business), and sales or lease of mobile handsets, other telecommunications equipment, and accessories. Revenue generated from the use of voice and data communications as well as television via internet is recognized upon rendering of the agreed service. The services rendered relate to use by customers (e.g., call minutes), availability over time (e.g., monthly flat rates), or other agreed rate plans. Revenue and expenses associated with the sale of telecommunications equipment and accessories are recognized when the products are delivered, provided there are no unfulfilled company obligations that affect the customer’s final acceptance of the arrangement. Revenue from the lease of mobile handsets and telecommunications equipment that is not considered a sale in economic terms is recognized monthly as the entitlement to the fees accrued. Advertising revenues are recognized in the period in which the advertisements are exhibited.

Trade-in rights for used handsets which are granted to customers upon contract conclusion under the condition of a new purchase transaction (including renewal of an existing service contract) do not constitute repurchase arrangements; however, if the repurchase prices exceed the fair value of the handsets these rights must be recognized as separate performance obligations for which part of the contractual revenue is deferred until they are exercised or expire.

Particularly in the mobile communications business, the timing of payments for mobile handsets purchased in connection with the conclusion of a service contract differs from the timing of the delivery and hence from revenue recognition. Where a significant financing component exists, revenue is measured at the present value. Whereas the sale of subsidized handsets in connection with the conclusion of service contracts in the consumer business is still common in the Germany operating segment and also to some extent in the Europe operating segment, handsets are not sold at a discount at all, or only to a limited extent, in the United States and to some extent in the Europe operating egments; payment-by-installment models or lease models are offered to customers instead. In both the subsidy model and the payment-by-installment model, an asset must thus be carried at the date of revenue recognition which is generally settled over a 24-month service contract term through payments made by the customer. The only difference is that with the subsidy model it is a contract asset that is repaid through the portion of the monthly bill that exceeds the allocated monthly service revenues.

By contrast, the payment-by-installment model involves an existing legal customer receivable that is settled based on an installment plan – separately from the monthly billing for telecommunications services.

The Systems Solutions operating segment provides, among other things, IT services and network services for corporate customers including IT outsourcing services and the sale of hardware including desktop services. Revenue from service contracts is recognized as the service is performed, i.e., normally on a pro-rata basis over the contract term. Revenue from service contracts billed on the basis of time and material used is recognized at the contractual hourly rates as labor hours are delivered and direct expenses are incurred.

Revenue from hardware sales or sales-type leases is recognized when the product is shipped to the customer, provided there are no unfulfilled company obligations that affect the customer’s final acceptance of the arrangement. Any costs of these obligations are recognized when the corresponding revenue is recognized.

Revenue from construction contracts and construction-type service contracts (or elements of service contracts), for which a defined output is promised (e.g., IT developments), is recognized using the percentage of completion method. The measure of progress or stage of completion of a contract is generally determined as the percentage of cost incurred up until the reporting date relative to the total estimated cost at the reporting date (cost-to-cost method). In particular for complex outsourcing contracts with corporate customers, a reliable estimate of the total cost and therefore of the stage of completion is not possible in many cases, so revenue is only recognized in the amount of the contract costs expensed. This means that a proportionate profit is not realized until the contract has been completed (zero-profit method).

Revenue from non-sales-type rentals and leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

JUDGMENTS AND ESTIMATES (extract)

SIGNIFICANT JUDGMENTS: REVENUE RECOGNITION, CONTRACT ASSETS AND LIABILITIES/CONTRACT COSTS

The standalone selling prices of individual products or services that are part of multiple-element arrangements are complex to determine, because some of the elements are price-sensitive and, thus, volatile in a competitive marketplace. In many cases, standalone selling prices can also not be observed for the company’s own products. Due to the fact that comparability is generally not completely assured, the use of market prices for similar products is subject to an element of uncertainty, as is an estimate using a cost-plus-margin approach. Changes in estimates of standalone selling prices can significantly influence the allocation of the transaction price for the entire multiple-element arrangement among the individual performance obligations and therefore affect both the financial position, i.e., the carrying amount of contract assets and contract liabilities, and the current and future results of operations.

One-time payments by the customer for contracts that can be terminated at any time are recognized over an expected contract period, the length of which depends on the period over which the customer is likely from a commercial perspective to renew or not terminate the contract on a monthly basis.

Contract costs are deferred and generally recognized as revenue over the expected duration of the customer relationship. The estimate of the expected average duration of customer retention is based on historical customer turnover. However, this is subject to fluctuations and has only limited informative value with regard to future customer behavior, particularly if new products are rolled out. If management’s estimates are revised, material differences may result in the amount and timing of Expenses for subsequent periods.

The significance of material rights is an estimate that is based on both quantitative and qualitative factors. This is ultimately a matter of judgment, even though it is supported by quantitative facts. Depending on the decision as to whether or not the customer has a material right to be deferred, there may be material differences in the amount and timing of revenues for the current and subsequent periods.

Gross vs. net presentation: The assessment of whether Deutsche Telekom presents revenue gross as the principal or net after deduction of costs as the agent, i.e., only in the amount of the remaining margin, requires an analysis of both the legal form and the substance of contracts. After all of the relevant facts and circumstances of the individual case have been weighed up, in many cases the decision also involves a degree of discretion, even if a uniform Group method of assessment is applied. Depending on the conclusion reached, there may be material differences in the amounts of revenues and expenses for the current and subsequent periods. This has no bearing on profit/loss from operations, however.

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION (extracts)

3 CONTRACT ASSETS

Following the transition to IFRS 15, a remeasurement effect of EUR 1.6 billion was recognized directly in equity as of January 1, 2018 in relation to the initial recognition of contract assets. Under IFRS 15, these would have led to the earlier recognition of revenue, in particular from the sale of goods and merchandise. Further, as a result of the transition, receivables from long-term construction contracts in the amount of EUR 0.2 billion, which were previously recognized as trade and other receivables, were reclassified as contract assets. For further information on the new accounting standards, please refer to the section “Initial application of standards, interpretations, and amendments in the financial year,” page 154 et seq.

Of the total contract assets as of December 31, 2018 of EUR 1.8 billion, EUR 0.2 billion related to contract assets in connection with long-term construction contracts.

The contract assets increased by EUR 44 million in the reporting year, due to a change in the business model in Poland in September 2018. Whereas the previous business model did not provide for handsets to be sold at a discount, the terminal equipment business is now subsidized. For information on allowances on contract assets, please refer to Note 40 “Financial instruments and risk management,” page 236 et seq.

8 CAPITALIZED CONTRACT COSTS

Following the transition to IFRS 15, remeasurement and reclassification effects totaling EUR 1.2 billion were recognized directly in equity as of January 1, 2018 in relation to the initial recognition of capitalized contract costs. Under IFRS 15, these costs would have resulted in the later recognition of selling expenses in earlier reporting periods. The carrying amount had changed to EUR 1.7 billion as of December 31, 2018. For further information on the new accounting standards, please refer to the section “Initial application of standards, interpretations, and amendments in the financial year,” page 154 et seq.

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The costs of obtaining a contract included in the carrying amount as of the end of 2018 primarily comprise sales commissions paid to third-party retailers in the direct and indirect sales channel and to employees. In the 2018 financial year, capitalized contract costs of EUR 976 million were amortized. The increase of EUR 0.6 billion in capitalized contract costs compared with the initial recognition as of January 1, 2018 is attributable in particular to a higher level of capitalized costs of obtaining a contract in postpaid customer business in the United States operating segment as of the end of the financial year.

17 CONTRACT LIABILITIES

Following the transition to IFRS 15, a remeasurement effect totalling EUR 0.6 billion was recognized directly in equity as of January 1, 2018. This related to the initial recognition of contract liabilities that would have resulted in the later recognition of revenue under IFRS 15. In addition, a total of EUR 1.9 billion was reclassified as contract liabilities as of January 1, 2018 in connection with IFRS 15. These reclassifications mainly comprise deferred revenue that was recognized under other liabilities as of December 31, 2017. The carrying amount for current and non-current contract liabilities was remeasured at EUR 2.3 billion as of the end of the 2018 financial year. For further information on the new accounting standards, please refer to the section “Initial application of standards, interpretations, and amendments in the financial year,” page 154 et seq.

Of the total of contract liabilities, EUR 1,720 million (January 1, 2018: EUR 1,911 million) is due within one year.

Revenue of EUR 1,619 million from contract liabilities that were still outstanding at the start of the 2018 financial year was realized during the reporting year. In addition, contract liabilities decreased by

EUR 20 million due to a refund of already paid customer activation fees.

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENT (extracts)

19 NET REVENUE

Net revenue breaks down into the following revenue categories:

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a Revenue from the sale of goods and merchandise includes interest income of EUR 0.3 billion in the reporting period, calculated using the effective interest method. This income is primarily attributable to accrued interest on receivables in connection with handsets sold under installment plans in the United States operating segment.

b Prior-year figures were adjusted retrospectively on account of a change in the allocation between revenue categories.

The total transaction price attributable to performance obligations that have not been fulfilled or, in some cases, not yet fulfilled at the end of the reporting period (hereinafter: outstanding transaction price) amounts to EUR 18,323 million.

The portion of the outstanding transaction price attributable to performance obligations that have not been fulfilled or, in some cases, not yet fulfilled at the end of the reporting period is generally recognized as revenue over the remaining term of the service contracts concluded. Since most service contracts – insofar as they are not able to be terminated at any time – have a minimum contract term of 24 months, an average remaining term of approximately 12 months can be assumed, provided the course of business in the mass business remains virtually unchanged. The disclosures only refer to transactions within the scope of IFRS 15, i.e., they do not include portions of the transaction price being allocated to performance obligations outside the scope of the standard, e.g., leases.

Deutsche Telekom generally makes use of the practical expedients in IFRS 15, according to which outstanding performance obligations under contracts with an expected original term of no more than one year and revenues recognized in accordance with the billed amounts are exempt from the disclosure requirement. Individual subsidiaries deviate from this general approach and have not made use of these practical expedients for similar contracts.

For further information on changes in net revenue, please refer to the section “Development of business in the Group” in the combined management report, page 49 et seq.

 

 

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