IFRS 15, policies, judgements and estimates, contracts, aircraft manufacturer

Airbus SE – Annual report – 31 December 2019

Industry: aircraft manufacturing

2. Significant Accounting Policies (extract)
Revenue recognition — Revenue is recognised when the Company transfers control of the promised goods or services to the customer. The Company measures revenue, for the consideration to which the Company is expected to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services. Variable considerations are included in the transaction price when it is highly probable that there will be no significant reversal of the revenue in the future. The Company identifies the various performance obligations of the contract and allocates the transaction price to these performance obligations. Advances and pre-delivery payments (contract liabilities) are received in the normal course of business and are not considered to be a significant financing component as they are intended to protect the Company from the customer failing to complete its contractual obligations.

Revenue from the sale of commercial aircraft is recognised at a point in time (i.e. at delivery of the aircraft). The Company estimates the amount of price concession granted by the Company’s engine suppliers to their customers as a reduction of both revenue and cost of sales.

Revenue from the sale of military aircraft, space systems and services — When control of produced goods or rendered services is transferred over time to the customer, revenue is recognised over time, i.e. under the percentage of completion method (“PoC” method).

The Company transfers control over time when:

– it produces a good with no alternative use and the Company has an irrevocable right to payment (including a reasonable margin) for the work completed to date, in the event of contract termination at the convenience of customers (e.g. Tiger contract); or
– it creates a good which is controlled by the customer as the good is created or enhanced (e.g. Eurofighter contracts, some border security contracts, A400M development); or
– the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company (e.g. maintenance contracts).

For the application of the over time method (PoC method), the measurement of progress towards complete satisfaction of a performance obligation is based on inputs (i.e. cost incurred).

When none of the criteria stated above have been met, revenue is recognised at a point in time. Revenue has been recognised at the delivery of aircraft under IFRS 15 from the sale of military transport aircraft, from the A400M launch contract and most of NH90 serial helicopters’ contracts.

Provisions for onerous contracts — The Company records provisions for onerous contracts when it becomes probable that the total contract costs will exceed total contract revenue. Before a provision for onerous contracts is recorded, the related assets under construction are measured at their net realisable value and written-off if necessary. Onerous contracts are identified by monitoring the progress of the contract together with the underlying programme status. An estimate of the related contract costs is made, which requires significant and complex assumptions, judgements and estimates related to achieving certain performance standards as well as estimates involving warranty costs (see “– Note 3: Key Estimates and Judgements”, “– Note 11: Revenue and Gross Margin” and “– Note 24: Provisions, Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilities”).

3. Key Estimates and Judgements (extract)
Revenue recognition for performance obligations transferred over time — The PoC method is used to recognise revenue for performance obligations transferred over time. This method places considerable importance on accurate estimates at completion as well as on the extent of progress towards completion. For the determination of the progress of the performance obligations, significant estimates include total contract costs, remaining costs to completion, total contract revenue, contract risks and other judgements.

The management of the operating Divisions continually review all estimates involved in such performance obligations and adjusts them as necessary (see “– Note 22: Contract Assets, Contract Liabilities and Trade Receivables, and Trade Liabilities”).