Telenor ASA – Half year report – 30 June 2019
Note 1 – General accounting principles (extract)
IFRS 16 Leases (effective from 1 January 2019)
IFRS 16 supersedes IAS 17 Leases and IFRIC 4 Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease. The standard sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases. Lessees are required to account for most leases under a single on-balance sheet model, and the distinction between operating and finance leases for lessees as was required by IAS 17 has been eliminated. Lessor accounting under IFRS 16 is substantially unchanged from IAS 17. Lessors will continue to classify leases as either operating or finance leases using similar principles as in IAS 17. However, sub-leases will in some cases be classified by the Group as lessor under IFRS 16. A sub-lease agreement is assessed based on the terms in the head lease and not on the characteristics of the underlying asset under IFRS 16. In accordance with IFRS 16, the Group recognises a liability to make lease payments (i.e. the lease liability) and an asset representing the right to use the underlying asset during the lease term (i.e. the right-of-use asset), and recognises depreciation of the right-of-use assets separately from interest on lease liabilities in the income statement. For a summary of new accounting policies, see further below.
The Group has made the following accounting policy choices:
• Low-value leases, meaning mainly leased office equipment, are not capitalized
• Leases with a lease term of 12 months or shorter are not capitalised (short-term leases), except for leases of spectrum and licences.
• Intangible assets, such as spectrum and licenses, are recognised as leases when the Group has exclusive right to use the assets.
• Fixed non-lease components embedded in the lease contract are not separated and hence recognised as lease liabilities and capitalised as right-of-use assets.
• Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are presented separately in the statement of financial position.
In addition to the above accounting policy choices the Group elected to apply the following practical expedients related to the implementation of IFRS 16:
• The Group elected to apply the modified retrospective approach for transition to IFRS 16, meaning that comparatives for 2018 are not restated and the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard has been recognised as an adjustment to the opening balance of equity as of 1 January 2019. Right-of-use assets and liabilities have been measured at the same amount, taking into consideration prepayments and accruals recognised as of 31 December 2018. Initial direct costs have been excluded from the measurement of the right-of-use asset at the date of initial application.
• The Group relied on its assessment of whether leases are onerous immediately before the date of initial application.
• A single discount rate was applied to portfolios of leases with reasonably similar characteristics.
• The Group did not change the initial carrying amounts of recognised assets and liabilities at the date of initial application for leases previously classified as finance leases (i.e., the right-of-use assets and lease liabilities equal the lease assets and liabilities recognised under IAS 17). The requirements of IFRS 16 were applied to these leases from 1 January 2019.
The effects of adoption of IFRS 16
The Group has lease contracts related to the mobile networks (mainly towers), land, buildings and other equipment.
Before the adoption of IFRS 16 Leases 1 January 2019, the Group classified each of its leases (as lessee) at the inception date as either a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease was classified as finance lease whenever the terms of the lease transferred substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Group. All other leases were classified as operating leases. Assets held under finance leases were recognised as assets of the Group at their fair value at inception of the leases or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The liabilities to the lessor were recognised as finance lease obligations in the statement of financial position. Lease payments were apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease liability to achieve a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. In an operating lease, the leased asset was not capitalised, and the lease payments were recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the lease terms. Any prepaid rent and accrued rent were recognised under prepayments and trade and other payables, respectively.
Upon adoption of IFRS 16, the Group recognised lease liabilities to make lease payments and right-of-use assets representing the right to use the underlying assets for all leases where it is the lessee, except for short-term leases and leases of low-value assets. The tables below show the impacts arising from IFRS 16 on the opening balance and for the second quarter and the first six months of 2019.
The net effect on EBITDA is mainly explained by operating lease expenses previously recorded under other operating expenses. These leases are now recognised as right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, leading to a corresponding increase in depreciation and amortisation expenses and financial expenses. The decrease in revenue mainly relates to sub-lease agreements previously classified as operating leases under IAS 17.
Main effects as at 1 January 2019:
• Additional non-current lease liabilities of NOK 33,699 million and current lease liabilities of NOK 5,386 million, NOK 39,085 million in total, were recognised based on the present value of the remaining lease payments, discounted using the incremental borrowing rate at the date of initial application, including the reclassification of non-current interest-bearing liabilities and current interest-bearing liabilities related to spectrum and licenses.
• Right-of -use assets of NOK 57,912 million were recognised, including the reclassification of intangible assets related to spectrum and licenses and finance leases reclassified from property, plant and equipment.
• The net effect on other non-current assets is related to the Group as a lessor in sub-lease agreements. The effects on prepayments classified as trade and other receivables, and on accounts payable and accrued expenses, were related to spectrum and licenses and operating leases under IAS 17 reclassified to right-of-use assets and lease liabilities.
• The cumulative effect of initially applying the standard was recognised as an adjustment to the opening balance of equity as of 1 January 2019. The effect is due to losses on derecognition of right-of use assets and recognition of lease receivables related to sub-lease agreements.
The weighted average incremental borrowing rate applied to lease liabilities recognised in the statement of financial position as of 1 January 2019 was 6%.
The improvement of net cash flow from operating activities and decrease in cash flow from financing activities is mainly due to reclassification of payments related to operating leases under IAS 17. The cash outflow for leases under IFRS 16 is presented as repayment of interest-bearing liabilities within financing activities under IFRS 16. Interest paid is still classified as cash flow within operating activities.
The following table provides reconciliation from operating lease commitments as of 31 December 2018 under IAS 17 and lease liabilities recognised in the statement of financial position as of 1 January 2019:
Summary of new accounting policies
The Group recognises right-of-use assets at the commencement date of the lease (i.e., the date the underlying asset is available for use). Right-of-use assets are measured at cost, less any accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, and adjusted for any remeasurement of lease liabilities. The cost of right-of-use assets includes the amount of lease liabilities recognised, initial direct costs incurred, and lease payments made at or before the commencement date less any lease incentives received. The cost of a right-of-use asset also includes an estimate of costs to be incurred by the Group in dismantling and removing the underlying leased asset, restoring the site on which it is located or restoring the underlying leased asset to the condition required by the terms and conditions of the lease. Unless the Group is reasonably certain to obtain ownership of the leased asset at the end of the lease term, the recognised right-of-use assets are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of its estimated useful life and the lease term. Right-of-use assets are subject to impairment assessments as described in note 2 to the Group’s Annual Report 2018.
At the commencement date of the lease, the Group recognises lease liabilities measured at the present value of lease payments to be made over the lease term. The lease payments include fixed payments (including in-substance fixed payments) less any lease incentives receivable, variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate, and amounts expected to be paid under residual value guarantees. The lease payments also include the exercise price of a purchase option reasonably certain to be exercised by the Group and payments of penalties for terminating a lease, if the lease term reflects the Group exercising the option to terminate. The variable lease payments that do not depend on an index or a rate are recognised as expense in the period in which the event or condition that triggers the payment occurs.
In calculating the present value of lease payments, the Group uses the incremental borrowing rate at the lease commencement date if the interest rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable. After the commencement date, the amount of lease liabilities is increased to reflect the accretion of interest and reduced for the lease payments made. In addition, the carrying amount of lease liabilities is remeasured if there is a modification, a change in the lease term, a change in the in-substance fixed lease payments or a change in the assessment to purchase the underlying asset.
The Group remeasures the lease liability upon the occurrence of certain events (e.g. a change in the lease term, or a change in future lease payments resulting from a change in an index or rate used to determine those payments). Generally, the amount of remeasurement of the lease liability is recognised as an adjustment to the right-of-use asset.
Short-term leases and leases of low-value assets
The Group applies the short-term lease recognition exemption to its short-term leases (i.e., those leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less from the commencement date and do not contain a purchase option), except for leases of spectrum and licences. The Group also applies the lease of low-value assets recognition exemption to leases that are considered of low value. Lease payments on short-term leases and leases of low-value assets are recognised as expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Incremental borrowing rate
In calculating the present value of lease payments, the Group uses the incremental borrowing rate at the lease commencement date if the interest rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable. To arrive at the incremental borrowing rate the Group applies the respective country’s (economic environment) risk free rate for the term corresponding to the lease term, adjusted for own credit risk. For listed subsidiaries, the Group applies the external borrowing rate corresponding to the lease term available to those subsidiaries.
Significant judgement in determining the lease term of contracts with renewal options
The Group determines the lease term as the non-cancellable term of the lease, together with any periods covered by an option to extend the lease if it is reasonably certain to be exercised, or any periods covered by an option to terminate the lease, if it is reasonably certain not to be exercised. The Group applies judgement in evaluating whether it is reasonably certain to exercise an option to renew a lease contract, considering all relevant factors that create an economic incentive for the Group to exercise the renewal or not exercise an option to terminate. The threshold for being reasonably certain is lower than virtually certain and higher than more likely than not under IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. After the commencement date, the Group reassesses the lease term if there is a significant event or change in circumstances that is within its control and affects its ability to exercise (or not to exercise) the option to renew (e.g., a change in business strategy).
The main part of the Group’s lease contracts excluding spectrum and licenses relates to the mobile networks (mainly towers) and land/property. For lease of land for own towers or leasing of towers from tower companies/other operators, factors considered in particular are technology development, business model and potential business combinations. Based on an assessment of these factors, the lease term for the Group’s leases relating to sites with renewal options shall normally be within the range of 4 to 7 years. This means that the lease term for sites shall normally be the higher of a non-cancellable period or within the range of 4 to 7 years. Some sites may be in strategically important locations and it might be more than reasonably certain that the sites will be maintained beyond 7 years. In these exceptional cases, the lease term may be up to 10 years.
The level of certainty for establishing the lease term requires a higher level of certainty than for establishing the useful life for depreciation purposes. Hence, the determination of the lease term does not affect the Group’s determination of useful life of own assets or other non-removable leasehold improvements determined for the purposes of depreciation charges.