Grindrod Shipping Holdings Ltd. – Annual report – 31 December 2018
2 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (extract)
2.10 Ships, Property, Plant and Equipment (extract)
Ships, property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.
Depreciation is charged so as to write off the cost of assets other than property and ships under construction over their estimated useful lives, using the straight-line method, on the following bases:
Office equipment and furniture and fittings – 3 years
Plant and equipment – 3 to 5 years
Motor vehicles – 5 years
Ships – 15 years
Dry-docking – 2.5 to 5 years
The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at each year end, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
Ships and properties in the course of construction for production, rental or administrative purposes, or for purposes not yet determined, are carried at cost, less any recognised impairment loss. Depreciation of these assets, on the same bases as other assets, commences when the assets are available for use.
Ships are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Cost comprises acquisition cost and costs directly related to the acquisition up until the time when the asset is ready for use, including interest expense incurred during the period. The market average useful life of a ship is estimated to range from 25 to 30 years at which point it would usually be scrapped. The Group policy is to maintain a young fleet compared to the market average and estimates useful life as 15 years from date of delivery for new ships. Ships are depreciated on a straight-line basis to an estimated residual value over their useful life.
From time to time, the Group’s ships are required to be dry-docked for inspection and re-licensing at which time major repairs and maintenance that cannot be performed while the ships are in operation are generally performed. The Group capitalises the costs associated with dry-docking as they occur and amortises these costs on a straight-line basis over 2.5 to 5 years, which is generally the period until the next scheduled dry-docking. A portion of the cost of acquiring a new ship is estimated and allocated to the components expected to be replaced or refurbished at the next scheduled dry-docking. If the ship is disposed before the next dry-docking, the carrying amount of dry-docking expenses is included in determining the gain or loss on disposal of the ship and taken to the profit or loss. If the period to the next dry-docking is shorter than expected, the unamortised balance of the deferred dry-docking cost is charged immediately as an expense before the next dry-docking.
Fully depreciated ships, property, plant and equipment still in use are retained in the financial statements.
Assets that are held for rental are initially classified as ships, property, plant and equipment. When these assets cease to be rented and a decision is made to sell these assets, the carrying amount is transferred to inventories. Upon sale of these assets, the sales value is recorded in gross revenue and the related carrying value of these assets (held as inventories) is recorded in cost of sales.