IFRS 9 adopted, policies, paras 4.1.2A, 5.7.10, debt at FVTOCI, paras 5.7.5, B5.7.1 equity investments designated at FVTOCI

Wipro Limited – Annual report – 31 March 2020

Industry: software

3. Significant accounting policies (extract)

(iv) Financial instruments

A) Non-derivative financial instruments:

Non-derivative financial instruments consist of:

  • financial assets which include cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, unbilled receivables, finance lease receivables, employee and other advances, investments in equity and debt securities and eligible current and non-current assets; Financial assets are derecognized when substantial risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset have been transferred. In cases where substantial risks and rewards of ownership of the financial assets are neither transferred nor retained, financial assets are derecognized only when the Company has not retained control over the financial asset.
  • financial liabilities which include long and short-term loans and borrowings, bank overdrafts, trade payables and accrued expenses, lease liabilities and eligible current and non-current liabilities.

Non-derivative financial instruments are recognized initially at fair value. Subsequent to initial recognition, non-derivative financial instruments are measured as described below:

a. Cash and cash equivalents

The Company’s cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand and in banks and demand deposits with banks, which can be withdrawn at any time, without prior notice or penalty on the principal.

For the purposes of the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, in banks and demand deposits with banks, net of outstanding bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and are considered part of the Company’s cash management system. In the consolidated statement of financial position, bank overdrafts are presented under borrowings within current liabilities.

b. Investments

Financial instruments measured at amortized cost:

Debt instruments that meet the following criteria are measured at amortized cost (except for debt instruments that are designated at fair value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL) on initial recognition):

  • the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and
  • the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payment of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI):

Debt instruments that meet the following criteria are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) (except for debt instruments that are designated at fair value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL) on initial recognition):

  • the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial asset; and
  • the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payment of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Interest income is recognized in the consolidated statement of income for FVTOCI debt instruments. Other changes in fair value of FVTOCI financial assets are recognized in other comprehensive income. When the investment is disposed of, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in reserves is transferred to the consolidated statement of income.

Financial instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL):

Instruments that do not meet the amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria are measured at FVTPL. Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on re-measurement recognized in consolidated statement of income. The gain or loss on disposal is recognized in the consolidated statement of income.

Interest income is recognized in the consolidated statement of income for FVTPL debt instruments. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognized when the Group’s right to receive dividend is established.

Investments in equity instruments designated to be classified as FVTOCI:

The Company carries certain equity instruments which are not held for trading. The Company has elected the FVTOCI irrevocable option for these instruments. Movements in fair value of these investments are recognized in other comprehensive income and the gain or loss is not transferred to consolidated statement of income on disposal of these investments. Dividends from these investments are recognized in the consolidated statement of income when the Company’s right to receive dividends is established.

c. Other financial assets:

Other financial assets are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. They are presented as current assets, except for those maturing later than 12 months after the reporting date which are presented as non-current assets. These are initially recognized at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses. These comprise trade receivables, unbilled receivables, finance lease receivables, employee and other advances and eligible current and noncurrent assets.

d. Trade payables, accrued expenses, and other liabilities

Trade payables, accrued expenses, and other liabilities are initially recognized at fair value, and subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method. For these financial instruments, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of these instruments. Contingent consideration recognized in the business combination is subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss.

B) Derivative financial instruments

The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on foreign currency assets, liabilities, net investment in foreign operations and forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currency.

The Company limits the effect of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into derivative financial instruments where the counterparty is primarily a bank.

Derivatives are recognized and measured at fair value. Attributable transaction costs are recognized in consolidated statement of income as cost.

Subsequent to initial recognition, derivative financial instruments are accounted as described below:

a. Cash flow hedges

Changes in the fair value of the derivative hedging instruments designated as a cash flow hedge are recognized in other comprehensive income and held in cash flow hedging reserve, net of taxes, a component of equity, to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognized in the consolidated statement of income and reported within foreign exchange gains/(losses), net, within results from operating activities. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in cash flow hedging reserve till the period the hedge was effective remains in cash flow hedging reserve until the forecasted transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the consolidated statement of income upon the occurrence of the related forecasted transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, such cumulative balance is immediately recognized in the consolidated statement of income.

b. Hedges of net investment in foreign operations

The Company designates derivative financial instruments as hedges of net investments in foreign operations. The Company also designates foreign currency denominated borrowing as a hedge of net investment in foreign operations. Changes in the fair value of the derivative hedging instruments and gains/(losses) on translation or settlement of foreign currency denominated borrowings designated as a hedge of net investment in foreign operations are recognized in other comprehensive income and presented within equity in the FCTR to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognized in the consolidated statement of income and reported within foreign exchange gains/(losses), net within results from operating activities.

c. Others

Changes in fair value of foreign currency derivative instruments neither designated as cash flow hedges nor hedges of net investment in foreign operations are recognized in the consolidated statement of income and reported within foreign exchange gains/(losses), net within results from operating activities. Changes in fair value and gains/(losses), net, on settlement of foreign currency derivative instruments relating to borrowings, which have not been designated as hedges are recorded in finance expenses.

C) Derecognition of financial instruments

The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under IFRS 9. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognize the financial asset and recognizes a borrowing for the proceeds received. A financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) is derecognized from the Company’s statement of financial position when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.

(x) Impairment (extract)

A) Financial assets

The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognizing impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortized cost, debt instruments classified as FVTOCI, trade receivables, unbilled receivables, contract assets, finance lease receivables, and other financial assets. Expected credit loss is the difference between the contractual cash flows and the cash flows that the entity expects to receive, discounted using the effective interest rate.

Loss allowances for trade receivables, unbilled receivables, contract assets and finance lease receivables are measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit loss. Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. Lifetime expected credit loss is computed based on a provision matrix which takes in to account risk profiling of customers and historical credit loss experience adjusted for forward looking information. For other financial assets, expected credit loss is measured at the amount equal to twelve months expected credit loss unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition, in which case those are measured at lifetime expected credit loss.