Genus plc – Annual report – 30 June 2018
- Retirement benefit obligations
The Group operates a number of defined contribution and defined benefit pension schemes covering many of its employees. The principal funds are the Milk Pension Fund and the Dalgety Pension Fund (‘DPF’) in the UK, which are defined benefit schemes. The assets of these funds are held separately from the Group’s assets and are administered by trustees and managed professionally.
Defined contribution pension schemes
A number of our employees are members of defined contribution pension schemes. We charge contributions to the income statement as they become payable under the scheme rules. We show differences between the contributions payable and the amount we have paid as either accruals or prepayments in the balance sheet. The schemes’ assets are held separately from those of the Group.
Defined benefit pension schemes
The Group operates defined benefit pension schemes for some of its employees. These schemes are closed to new members and to further accrual. We calculate our net obligation separately for each scheme, by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned, in return for their service to date. We discount that benefit to determine its present value and deduct the fair value of the plan’s assets (at bid price). The liability discount rate we use is the market yield at the balance sheet date on high-quality corporate bonds, with terms to maturity approximating our pension liabilities. Qualified actuaries perform the calculations, using the projected unit method.
We recognise actuarial gains and losses in equity in the period in which they occur, through the Group Statement of Comprehensive Income. Actuarial gains and losses include the difference between the expected and actual return on scheme assets and experience gains and losses on scheme liabilities.
Genus and the other participating employers are jointly and severally liable for the MPF’s obligations. We account for our section of the scheme and our share of any orphan assets and liabilities, and provide for any amounts we believe we will have to pay under our joint and several liability. The joint and several liability also means we have a contingent liability for the scheme’s obligations that we have not accounted for.
Under the joint and several liability, we initially recognise any changes in our share of orphan assets and liabilities in the income statement. After this initial recognition, any actuarial gains and losses on the orphan assets and liabilities are recognised directly in equity through the Group Statement of Changes in Equity, in the period in which they occur.
Retirement benefit obligations
The financial positions of the defined benefit schemes, as recorded in accordance with IAS 19 and IFRIC 14, are aggregated for disclosure purposes. The liability split by principal scheme is set out below.
Overall, we expect to pay £7.5m (2018: £7.3m) in contributions to defined benefit plans in the 2019 financial year.
The defined benefit plans are administered by Trustee boards that are legally separated from the Group. The Trustee board of each pension fund consists of representatives who are employees, former employees or are independent from the Group. The boards of the pension funds are required by law to act in the best interest of the plan participants and are responsible for setting certain policies, such as investment and contribution policies, and for the governance of the fund.
The defined benefit pension schemes expose the Group to actuarial risks such as greater than expected longevity of members, lower than expected return on investments and higher than expected inflation, which may increase the plans’ liabilities or reduce the value of their assets.
UK pensions are regulated by The Pensions Regulator, a non-departmental public body established under the Pensions Act 2004 and sponsored by the Department for Work and Pensions, operating within a legal regulatory framework set by the UK Parliament. The Pensions Regulator has statutory objectives set out in legislation, which include promoting and improving understanding of the good administration of work-based pensions, protecting member benefits and regulating occupational defined benefit and contribution schemes. The Pensions Regulator’s statutory objectives and regulatory powers are described on its website at www.thepensionsregulator.gov.uk.
All defined benefit schemes are registered as an occupational pension plan with HMRC and are subject to UK legislation and oversight from The Pensions Regulator. UK legislation requires that pension schemes are funded prudently and valued at least every three years. Separate valuations are required for each scheme. Within 15 months of each valuation date, the plan Trustees and the Group must agree any contributions required to ensure that the plan is fully funded over time, on a suitably prudent measure.
Funding plans are individually agreed with the respective Trustees for each of the Group’s defined benefit pension schemes, taking into account local regulatory requirements.
The Milk Pension Fund (‘MPF’)
The MPF was previously operated by the Milk Marketing Board and was also open to staff working for Milk Marque Ltd (the principal employer, now known as Community Foods Group Limited), National Milk Records plc, First Milk Ltd, hauliers associated to First Milk Ltd, Dairy Farmers of Britain Ltd (which went into receivership in June 2009) and Milk Link Ltd.
We have accounted for our section of the scheme and our share of any orphan assets and liabilities, which together represent approximately 86% of the MPF (2017: 85%). Although the MPF is managed on a sectionalised basis, it is a ‘last man standing scheme’, which means that all participating employers are jointly and severally liable for all of the fund’s liabilities. With effect from 30 June 2013, Genus’s remaining active members ceased accruing benefits in the fund and became deferred pensioners.
The most recent actuarial triennial valuation of the MPF was at 31 March 2015 and was carried out by qualified actuaries. The valuation has been agreed by the Trustees.
The principal actuarial assumptions adopted in the 2015 valuation were that:
- investment returns on existing assets would exceed fixed interest gilt yields by 1.1% per annum;
- Consumer Price Index (‘CPI’) price inflation is expected to be 0.9% per annum lower than Retail Price Index (‘RPI’) price inflation; and
- pensions in payment and pensions in deferment would increase in future in line with CPI price inflation, subject to various minimum and maximum increases.
At 31 March 2015, the market value of the fund’s assets was £403m. This represented approximately 87% of the value of the uninsured liabilities, which were £465m at that date.
The deficit in the fund as a whole, by reference to the 31 March 2015 valuation, was £62m (of which Genus’s notional share was £47m). This shortfall is being addressed by additional contributions from the participating employers. Under the Trustee prepared schedule of contributions, Genus is required to make deficit repair contributions of £5.6m per annum commencing 31 March 2017, and rising thereafter by 3.4% per annum until 31 August 2022, in addition to funding the scheme’s operating expenses. Genus has assessed its additional pension liability under IFRIC 14 by reference to this schedule of contributions, resulting in an amount of £59.5m (2017: £19.6m) being recognised in the Group Statement of Comprehensive Income.
In the previous year, NMR withdrew from the MPF under a Flexible Apportionment Arrangement between NMR, Genus and the Trustees of the MPF. In return for the right to withdraw from the MPF, NMR made a one-off, lump sum cash payment of £10.1m to the MPF, equivalent to the undiscounted value of all NMR’s future payments under the existing MPF recovery plan, which extends to March 2026. NMR also made a payment to Genus of £4.7m, with £1.4m being satisfied by the issue of NMR shares.
As a result of the NMR withdrawal, in the prior year Genus recognised £5.7m as an exceptional credit, with £4.5m (£4.7m payment net of fees) being received directly from NMR, and £1.2m from the MPF, reflecting the impact of NMR paying undiscounted amounts into the scheme.
Dalgety Pension Fund (‘DPF’)
The most recent actuarial valuation of the DPF was at 31 March 2015 and was carried out by qualified actuaries. The principal actuarial assumptions adopted in the 2015 valuation were that investment returns on existing assets would be 4.1% per annum before retirement and 2.2% per annum after retirement and that the annual increase in pensions in payment would be 3.3% per annum.
The market value of the available assets at 31 March 2015 was £31.6m. The value of those assets represented approximately 101% of the value of the uninsured liabilities, which were £31.3m at 31 March 2015. Under the funding agreement, the Company will not have to make deficit repair contributions.
The disclosures required under IAS 19 have been calculated by an independent actuary, based on accurate calculations carried out as at 31 March 2015 and updated to 30 June 2018.
As at 30 June 2018, the DPF was in an overall net pension asset position of £8.2m. However, the Group does not have the unilateral right to this surplus and, therefore, in line with IFRIC 14 the recognition of this asset is restricted.
The Trustees of the DPF hold a £20.9m reserve against future unknown liabilities materialising. As the economic benefit to Genus of this amount is not certain, it is treated as a contingent asset.
In addition to the aggregate assets and liabilities disclosed, a bulk annuity policy was secured with an insurance company in July 1999, which matched the benefit entitlement of almost all of the fund’s current and deferred pension liabilities at that time. The value of the policy and related liabilities at 30 June 2018 was £698m (2017: £708m).
Other defined benefit scheme in deficit
The Group operates a closed defined benefit scheme for a small number of former employees of the National Pig Development Company Limited. The total market value of scheme assets and liabilities at 30 June 2018, under the provisions of IAS 19, were £5.2m (2017: £5.2m) and £6.3m (2017: £6.7m), respectively.
Other unfunded schemes
When the Group acquired Sygen International plc, it also acquired three unfunded defined benefit schemes and an unfunded retirement health benefit plan, which it now operates for the benefit of the previous Group’s senior employees and executives.
The scheme liabilities for the three unfunded defined benefit schemes amounted to £7.9m (2017: £8.1m), based on IAS 19’s methods and assumptions. This amount is included within pension liabilities in the Group Balance Sheet. Interest on pension scheme liabilities amounted to £0.2m (2017: £0.2m).
The principal assumptions used to calculate the scheme liabilities were that the discount rate would be 2.90% (2017: 2.65%) and that inflation and pension payment increases would be 3.1% per annum (2017: 3.1%)
The scheme liabilities for the unfunded retirement health benefit plan amounted to £0.7m (2017: £0.9m), based on IAS 19’s methods and assumptions. This amount is included within retirement benefit obligations in the Group Balance Sheet. Interest on plan liabilities amounted to £nil (2017: £nil).
The principal assumptions used to calculate the plan liabilities were that the discount rate would be 2.90% (2017: 2.65%) and that the long-term rate of medical expense inflation would be 7.1% (2017: 7.1%).
Aggregated position of defined benefit schemes
Plan assets consist of the following:
Each of the defined benefit schemes manages risks through a variety of methods and strategies, including equity protection, to limit the downside risk of falls in equity markets, as well as inflation and interest rate hedging.
Movement in the liability for defined benefit obligations
Movement in plan assets
Summary of movements in Group deficit during the year
Amounts recognised in the Group Income Statement
The expense/(income) is recognised in the following line items in the Income Statement
Actuarial (gains)/losses recognised in the Group Statement of Comprehensive Income
Actuarial assumptions and sensitivity analysis
Principal actuarial assumptions at the reporting date (expressed as weighted averages):
The mortality assumptions used are consistent with those recommended by the schemes’ actuaries and reflect the latest available tables, adjusted for the experience of the scheme where appropriate. For 2018, the mortality tables used are 97% of the S2NA tables, with birth year and 2017 CMI projections with a smoothing parameter of Sk = 7.5, subject to a long-term rate of improvement of 1.25% for males and females (2017: the mortality tables used are 97% of the S2NA tables, with birth year and 2014 CMI projections, subject to a long-term rate of improvement of 1.25% for males and females).
The following table shows the assumptions used for all schemes and illustrates the life expectancy of an average member retiring at age 65 at the balance sheet date and a member reaching age 65 in 20 years’ time.
Duration of benefit obligations
The weighted average duration of the defined benefit obligations at 30 June 2018 was 17.3 years (2017: 17.4 years).
Measurement of the Group’s defined benefit obligation is sensitive to changes in certain key assumptions. The sensitivity analysis below shows how a reasonably possible increase or decrease in a particular assumption would, in isolation, result in an increase or decrease in the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at 30 June 2018.
The sensitivity analysis may not be representative of an actual change in the defined benefit obligation, as it is unlikely that changes in assumptions would occur in isolation from one another.
The sensitivities assume the funds’ assets remain unchanged. However, in practice changes in interest rates and inflation will also affect the value of the funds’ assets. The funds’ investment strategy aims to hold matching assets which should move broadly in line with the liabilities of the funds, to protect partially against changes in interest rates and inflation.
This sensitivity analysis has been prepared using the same method adopted when adjusting results of the latest funding valuation to the balance sheet date. This is the same approach adopted in previous periods.
The history of experience adjustment is as follows: