IFRS 15, policies, judgements and estimates, contract assets and liabilities, financing, bill and hold, contracting, certain disclosures

Bombardier Inc. – Annual report – 31 December 2019

Industry: contracting

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
(Tabular figures are in millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (extract)
Revenue recognition
Long-term contracts – Revenues from long-term contracts related to designing, engineering or manufacturing specifically designed products (including rail vehicles, vehicles overhaul and signalling contracts) and service contracts are generally recognized over time. The measure of progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation is generally determined by comparing the actual costs incurred to the total costs anticipated for the entire contract, excluding costs that are not representative of the measure of performance. The contract transaction price is adjusted for change orders, claims, performance incentives and other contract terms that provide for the adjustment of prices to the extent they represent enforceable rights for the Corporation. Variable considerations such as assumptions for price escalation clauses, performance incentives and claims are only included in the transaction price to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Customer options are only included in the transaction price of the contract when they become legally enforceable as a result of the customer exercising its right to purchase the additional goods or services. If a contract review indicates the expected costs to fulfill the contract exceed the expected economic benefits expected to be received under it, the entire expected loss on the contract is recognized as an onerous contract provision with the corresponding expense recorded in cost of sales. The expected benefits to be received are generally limited to the revenues from the associated contract.

Options or variation orders for additional assets are treated as contract modifications when exercised. Modifications of the Corporation’s long term contracts in Transportation are generally accounted as part of the existing contract to the extent the remaining goods and services are considered to form part of a single performance obligation that is partially satisfied at the date of contract modification. The effect that the contract modification has on the transaction price and the existing progress toward satisfaction of the single performance obligation is recognized as an adjustment to revenue at the date of the contract modification on a cumulative catch-up basis.

Aerospace programs – Revenues from the sale of new aircraft are considered a single performance obligation and are recognized at delivery, which is the point in time when the customer has obtained control of the aircraft and the Corporation has satisfied its performance obligation. All costs incurred or to be incurred in connection with the sale, including warranty costs and sales incentives, are charged to cost of sales or as a deduction from revenues at the time revenue is recognized.

For the bill-and-hold arrangements in respect of new aircraft, revenue is recognized when the customer has obtained control of the aircraft and the customer has requested the arrangement, the aircraft is separately identified as belonging to the customer, the aircraft is ready for physical transfer to the customer and the Corporation does not have the ability to use the product or direct it to another customer.

Other – Revenues from the sale of pre-owned aircraft and spare parts are recognized at the point in time when the customer has obtained control of the promised asset and the Corporation has satisfied the performance obligation. Aftermarket services are generally recorded over time.

Revenues earned by the Aviation market segment on its contract with ACLP for the A220 program are recognized at delivery.

The Corporation accounts for a significant financing component on orders where timing of cash receipts and revenue recognition differ substantially. Most of the Corporation’s contracts do not have a significant financing component. However, there are certain orders in the Aviation market segment where advances were received well before expected delivery and therefore a financing component has been accounted for separately. The result is that interest expense is accrued during the advance period and the transaction price will be increased by a corresponding amount.

Contract balances
Contract related balances comprise of contract assets and contract liabilities presented separately in the consolidated statements of financial position.

Contract assets – Are recognized when goods or services are transferred to customers before consideration is received or before the Corporation has an unconditional right to payment for performance completed to date. Contract assets are subsequently transferred to receivables when the right of payment becomes unconditional. Contract assets comprise cost incurred and recorded margins in excess of advances and progress billings on long-term production and service contracts.

Contract liabilities – Are recognized when amounts are received from customers in advance of transfer of goods or services. Contract liabilities are subsequently recognized in revenue as or when the Corporation performs under contracts. Contract liabilities comprise advances on aerospace programs, advances and progress billings in excess of long-term contract cost incurred and recorded margin, and other deferred revenues related to operation and maintenance of systems.

A net position of contract asset or contract liability is determined for each contract. The cash flows in respect of advances and progress billings, including amounts received from third party advance providers, are classified as cash flows from operating activities.

Government assistance and refundable advances
Government assistance, including investment tax credits, is recognized when there is a reasonable assurance that the assistance will be received and that the Corporation will comply with all relevant conditions. Government assistance related to the acquisition of inventories, PP&E and intangible assets is recorded as a reduction of the cost of the related asset. Government assistance related to current expenses is recorded as a reduction of the related expenses.

Government refundable advances are recorded as a financial liability if there is reasonable assurance that the amount will be repaid. Government refundable advances are adjusted if there is a change in the number of aircraft to be delivered and the timing of delivery of aircraft. Government refundable advances provided to the Corporation to finance research and development activities on a risk-sharing basis are considered part of the Corporation’s operating activities and are therefore presented as cash flows from operating activities in the statement of cash flows.

Provisions
Provisions are recognised when the Corporation has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the cost can be reliably estimated. These liabilities are presented as provisions when they are of uncertain timing or amount. Provisions are measured at their present value.

Product warranties – A provision for assurance type warranties is recorded in cost of sales when the revenue for the related product is recognized. The interest component associated with product warranties, when applicable, is recorded in financing expense. The cost is estimated based on a number of factors, including the historical warranty claims and cost experience, the type and duration of warranty coverage, the nature of products sold and in service and counter-warranty coverage available from the Corporation’s suppliers. Claims for reimbursement from third parties are recorded if their realization is virtually certain. Product warranties typically range from one to five years, except for aircraft structural and bogie warranties that extend up to 20 years.

Credit and residual value guarantees – Credit and residual value guarantees related to the sale of aircraft are recorded at the amount the Corporation expects to pay under these guarantees when the revenue for the related product is recognized. Subsequent to initial recognition, changes in the value of these guarantees are recorded in other expense (income), except for the changes in value arising from a change in interest rates, which are recorded in financing expense or financing income.

Credit guarantees provide support through contractually limited payments to the guaranteed party to mitigate default-related losses. Credit guarantees are triggered if customers do not perform during the term of the financing.

Residual value guarantees provide protection, through contractually limited payments, to the guaranteed parties in cases where the market value of the underlying asset falls below the guaranteed value. In most cases, these guarantees are provided as part of a financing arrangement.

Restructuring provisions – Restructuring provisions are recognised only when the Corporation has an actual or a constructive obligation. The Corporation has a constructive obligation when a detailed formal plan identifies the business or part of the business concerned, the location and number of employees affected, a detailed estimate of the associated costs and an appropriate timeline. Furthermore, the affected employees or worker councils must have been notified of the plan’s main features.

Onerous contracts – If it is more likely than not that the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under a firm contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it, a provision for onerous contracts is recorded in cost of sales, except for the interest component, which is recorded in financing expense. Unavoidable costs include the costs that relate directly to the contract such as anticipated cost overruns, expected costs associated with late delivery penalties and technological problems, as well as allocations of costs that relate directly to the contract. Provisions for onerous contracts are measured at the lower of the expected cost of fulfilling the contract and the expected cost of terminating the contract.

Termination benefits – Termination benefits are usually paid when employment is terminated before the normal retirement date or when an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Corporation recognizes termination benefits when it is demonstrably committed, through a detailed formal plan without possibility of withdrawal, to terminate the employment of current employees.

Environmental costs – A provision for environmental costs is recorded when environmental claims or remedial efforts are probable and the costs can be reasonably estimated. Legal asset retirement obligations and environmental costs of a capital nature that extend the life, increase the capacity or improve the safety of an asset or that mitigate, or prevent environmental contamination that has yet to occur, are included in PP&E and are generally amortized over the remaining useful life of the underlying asset. Costs that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations and that do not contribute to future revenue generation are expensed and included in cost of sales.

Litigation – A provision for litigation is recorded in case of legal actions, governmental investigations or proceedings when it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the cost can be reliably estimated.

4. USE OF ESTIMATES AND JUDGMENT (extracts)
Long-term contracts – Transportation conducts most of its business under long-term manufacturing and service contracts and Aviation has some long-term maintenance service contracts, as well as design and development contracts for third parties. Revenues and margins from long-term contracts relating to the designing, engineering or manufacturing of specially designed products (including rail vehicles, vehicle overhaul and signalling contracts) and service contracts are recognized over time. The long-term nature of these contracts requires estimates of total contract costs and the transaction price. The measure of progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation is generally determined by comparing the actual costs incurred to the total costs anticipated for the entire contract, excluding costs that are not representative of the measure of performance.

The contract transaction price includes adjustments for change orders, claims, performance incentives, price escalation clauses and other contract terms that provide for the adjustment of prices to the extent they represent enforceable rights for the Corporation. Variable consideration such as assumptions for price escalation clauses, performance incentives and claims is only included in the transaction price to the extent it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.

Contract costs include material, direct labour, manufacturing overhead and other costs, such as warranty and freight. Estimated contract costs at completion incorporate forecasts for material usage and costs, including escalation clauses, labour hours and costs, foreign exchange rates (including the effect of hedges) and labour productivity. These costs are influenced by the nature and complexity of the work to be performed, as well as the impact of change orders and potential delays in delivery. Cost estimates are based mainly on historical performance trends, economic trends, collective agreements and contracts signed with suppliers. Management applies judgment to determine the probability that the Corporation will incur additional costs from delays or other penalties, and such costs, if probable, are included in estimated costs at completion, unless there is an adjustment to the transaction price in which case it is recorded as a reduction of estimated revenues at completion.

Recognized revenues and margins are subject to revisions as contracts progress towards completion. Management conducts quarterly reviews of estimated costs and revenues to completion on a contract-by-contract basis, including a review of escalation assumptions. In addition, a detailed annual review is performed on a contract-by-contract basis as part of the budget and strategic plan process. The effect of any revision may be significant and is recorded by way of a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period in which the estimates are revised.

Sensitivity analysis
A 1% increase in the estimated future costs to complete all ongoing long-term contracts would have decreased Transportation’s gross margin for fiscal year 2019 by  approximately $110 million.

Onerous contract provision – An onerous contract provision is recorded if it is more likely than not that the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under a firm contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it. In most cases the economic benefits expected to be received under the contract consist of contract revenue. The calculation of the unavoidable costs requires estimates of expected future costs, including anticipated future cost reductions related to performance improvements and transformation initiatives, anticipated cost overruns, expected costs associated with late delivery penalties and technological problems, as well as allocations of costs that relate directly to the contract. The measurement of the provision is impacted by anticipated delivery schedules since for new aircraft programs early production units require higher cost than units produced later in the process, and for long term train manufacturing contracts delays result in penalties.

Sensitivity analysis
A 1% increase in the expected costs over the life of the contract would have decreased EBIT for fiscal year 2019 by approximately $184 million.

9. FINANCING EXPENSE AND FINANCING INCOME
Financing expense and financing income were as follows, for fiscal years:

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(1) Represents the loss related to the redemption of the $850-million Senior Notes due 2020, and the partial redemption of the €780-million Senior Notes due 2021 and $1,400-million Senior Notes due 2021, which was recorded as a special item. See Note 8 – Special items and see Note 29 – Long-term debt for more details.
(2) Represents adjustments to transaction prices for certain orders with a significant financing component due to a significant delay between timing of cash receipt and revenue recognition.
(3) Following the adoption of IFRS 16 – Leases, effective January 1, 2019, the Corporation presented the interest expense on lease liabilities as part of financing expense. See Note 3 – Changes in accounting policies for more details.
(4) Net losses (gains) on certain financial instruments classified as FVTP&L, including losses (gains) arising from changes in interest rates.
(5) Represents the loss related to the sale of long-term contract receivables in Transportation. See Note 8 – Special items for more details.
(6) Of which $713 million representing the interest expense calculated using the effective interest rate method for financial liabilities classified as amortized cost, respectively for fiscal year 2019 ($431 million for fiscal year 2018).
(7) Represents a change in the estimates used to determine the provision related to tax litigation.
(8) Of which $35 million representing the interest income calculated using the effective interest rate method for financial assets classified as amortized cost and FVOCI, for fiscal year 2019 ($32 million for fiscal year 2018).

Borrowing costs capitalized to PP&E and intangible assets totalled $13 million for fiscal year 2019, using an average capitalization rate of 6.76% ($247 million and 6.65% for fiscal year 2018). Capitalized borrowing costs are deducted from the related interest expense (i.e. interest on long-term debt or accretion on other financial liabilities, if any).

17. CONTRACT BALANCES
Contract assets were as follows, as at:

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Contract liabilities were as follows, as at:

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Under certain contracts, title to contract balances is vested to the customer as the work is performed, in accordance with contractual arrangements and industry practice. In addition, in the normal course of business, the Corporation provides performance bonds, bank guarantees and other forms of guarantees to customers, mainly in Transportation, as security for advances received from customers pending performance under certain contracts. In accordance with industry practice, the Corporation remains liable to the purchasers for the usual contractor’s obligations relating to contract completion in accordance with predetermined specifications, timely delivery and product performance.

Advances and progress billings received on long-term contracts in progress were $10,405 million as at December 31, 2019 ($8,895 million as at December 31, 2018 and $8,194 million as at January 1, 2018). Revenues include revenues from Transportation long-term contracts, which amounted to $6,766 million for fiscal year 2019 ($7,388 million for fiscal year 2018).

In connection with certain long-term contracts, Transportation enters into arrangements whereby amounts are received from third-party advance providers in exchange for the rights to customer payments. There is no recourse to Transportation if the customer defaults on its payment obligations assigned to the third-party advance provider. Amounts received under these arrangements are included as advances and progress billings in reduction of long-term contracts (production contracts) in contract assets and amounted to €503 million ($565 million) as at December 31, 2019 (€624 million ($714 million) as at December 31, 2018 and €434 million ($520 million) as at January 1, 2018). The third-party advance providers could request repayment of these amounts if  Transportation fails to perform its contractual obligations such as delivery by a specified date.

Revenues recognized were as follows for fiscal years:

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(1) Includes changes in transaction price such as penalties and escalation.

Impairment losses recognized were as follows for fiscal years:

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19. BACKLOG
The following table presents the aggregate amount of the revenues expected to be realized in the future from partially or fully unsatisfied performance obligations as we perform under contracts at delivery or recognized over time. The amounts disclosed below represent the value of firm orders only. Such orders may be subject to future
modifications that might impact the amount and/or timing of revenue recognition. The amounts disclosed below do not include constrained variable consideration, unexercised options or letters of intent.

Revenues expected to be recognized in:

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BOMBARDIER INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
As at
(in millions of U.S. dollars)

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