Koninklijke Philips N.V. – Annual report – 31 December 2018
1 Significant accounting policies (extract)
Policies that are more critical in nature (extract)
Revenue from the sale of goods in the normal course of business is recognized at a point in time when the performance obligation is satisfied and it is based on the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the performance obligation. The transaction price is the amount of the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods to the customer. The consideration expected by the company may include fixed and/or variable amounts which can be impacted by sales returns, trade discounts and volume rebates. The company adjusts the consideration for the time value of money for the contracts where no explicit interest rate is mentioned if the period between the transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer and payment by the customer exceeds six months. Revenue for the sale of goods is recognized when control of the asset is transferred to the buyer and only when it is highly probable that a significant reversal of revenue will not occur when uncertainties related to a variable consideration are resolved.
Transfer of control varies depending on the individual terms of the contract of sale. For consumer-type products in the segment of Personal Health, control is transferred when the product is shipped and delivered to the customer and title and risk have passed to the customer (depending on the delivery conditions) and acceptance of the product has been obtained. Examples of delivery conditions are ‘Free on Board point of delivery’ and ‘Costs, Insurance Paid point of delivery’, where the point of delivery may be the shipping warehouse or any other point of destination as agreed in the contract with the customer and where control is transferred to the customer.
Revenues from transactions relating to distinct goods or services are accounted for separately based on their relative stand-alone selling prices. The stand-alone selling price is defined as the price that would be charged for the goods or service in a separate transaction under similar conditions to similar customers (adjusted market assessment approach or expected costs plus margin approach), which within the company is mainly the Country Target Price (CTP). The transaction price determined (taking into account variable considerations) is allocated to performance obligations based on relative stand-alone selling prices. These transactions mainly occur in the segments Diagnosis & Treatment and Connected Care & Health Informatics and include arrangements that require subsequent installation and training activities in order to make distinct goods operable for the customer. As such, the related installation and training activities are part of equipment sales rather than separate performance obligations. Revenue is recognized when the performance obligation is satisfied, i.e. when the installation has been completed and the equipment is ready to be used by the customer in the way contractually agreed.
Revenues are recorded net of sales taxes. A variable consideration is recognized to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Such assessment is performed on each reporting date to check whether it is constrained. For products for which a right of return exists during a defined period, revenue recognition is determined based on the historical pattern of actual returns, or in cases where such information is not available revenue recognition is postponed until the return period has lapsed. Return policies are typically based on customary return arrangements in local markets.
A provision is recognized for assurance-type product warranty at the time of revenue recognition and reflects the estimated costs of replacement and free-of-charge services that will be incurred by the company with respect to the products sold. For certain products, the customer has the option to purchase the warranty separately, which is considered a separate performance obligation on top of the assurance-type product warranty. For such warranties which provide distinct service, revenue recognition occurs on a straight-line basis over the extended warranty contract period.
In the case of loss under a sales agreement, the loss is recognized immediately.
Expenses incurred for shipping and handling of internal movements of goods are recorded as cost of sales. Shipping and handling related to sales to third parties are recorded as selling expenses. When shipping and handling are part of a project and billed to the customer, then the related expenses are recorded as cost of sales. Shipping and handling billed to customers are distinct and separate performance obligations and recognized as revenues. Expenses incurred for sales commissions that are considered incremental to the contracts are recognized immediately in the Consolidated statements of income as selling expenses as a practical expedient under IFRS 15.
Revenue from services is recognized over a period of time as the company transfers control of the services to the customer which is demonstrated by the customer simultaneously receiving and consuming the benefits provided by the company. The amount of revenues is measured by reference to the progress made towards complete satisfaction of the performance obligation, which in general is evenly over time. Service revenue related to repair and maintenance activities for goods sold is recognized ratably over the service period or as services are rendered.
Royalty income from brand license arrangements is recognized based on a right to access the license, which in practice means over the contract period based on a fixed amount or reliable estimate of sales made by a licensee.
Royalty income from intellectual property rights such as technology licenses or patents is recognized based on a right to use the license, which in practice means at a point in time based on the contractual terms and substance of the relevant agreement with a licensee. However, revenue related to intellectual property contracts with variable consideration where a constraint in the estimation is identified, is recognized over the contract period and is based on actual or reliably estimated sales made by a licensee.
The company receives payments from customers based on a billing schedule or credit period, as established in our contracts. Credit periods are determined based on standard terms, which vary according to local market conditions. Amounts posted in deferred revenue for which the goods or services have not yet been transferred to the customer and amounts that have either been received or are due, are presented as Contract liabilities in the Consolidated balance sheets.
New standards and interpretations (extract 1)
IFRS accounting standards adopted as from 2018
The company applies, for the first time, IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers and IFRS 9 Financial instruments. The impact of the adoption of these new standards is disclosed below. Other amendments and interpretations applied for the first time in 2018, but did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements of the company.
Impact on the financial statements
As explained below, IFRS 15 was adopted using the modified retrospective approach and IFRS 9 was adopted retrospectively with the exception of certain aspects of hedge accounting. As a result, for IFRS 15 the reclassifications and adjustments arising from the changes in the company’s accounting policies are not reflected in a restated Consolidated balance sheets as at December 31, 2017, but are recognized in the opening Consolidated balance sheets on January 1, 2018. For IFRS 9, the company has taken an exemption not to restate comparative information for prior periods with respect to classification and measurement requirements. Accordingly, the information presented for 2017 does not generally reflect the requirements of IFRS 9 but rather those of IAS 39.
The following tables show the adjustments recognized for each individual Consolidated balance sheets caption. Consolidated balance sheets captions that were not affected by the changes have not been included. The adjustments, by standard, are explained in more detail below.
The above adjustments are based on the company’s finalized assessments, which do not materially differ from the amounts disclosed in the Annual Report 2017.
New standards and interpretations (extract 2)
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers – impact of adoption
The company has adopted IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers from January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective approach and has adjusted the cumulative impact of adoption in opening retained earnings as of January 1, 2018. Accordingly, comparatives have not been restated. The standard has only been applied to contracts that were not completed by January 1, 2018. The effect of adoption of IFRS 15 on the Consolidated balance sheets and retained earnings is disclosed above.
During 2018, EUR 18,121 million of revenues were recognized under IFRS 15. If IAS 18 had been applied during this period, revenues would have amounted to EUR 18,070 million. The difference relates to the timing of revenue recognition on IP Royalties, as explained below. The impact of the accounting on the costs of obtaining a contract, as also explained below, did not materially affect 2018 results under IFRS 15 compared to IAS 18.
Costs of obtaining a contract
Under IFRS 15, the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer are recognized as an asset if the entity expects to recover them. The company identified that certain sales commissions paid to third parties and internal employees that are typical of transactions in the segments Diagnosis & Treatment and Connected Care & Health Informatics qualify as incremental costs of obtaining a contract. These costs were mostly paid and capitalized as prepayment upon issuance of sales orders and recognition of revenue related to the sale of goods or rendering of services. Such costs were commonly expensed in line with the revenue recognition pattern of the related goods or services. Due to these sales commissions being largely amortized within a year, the company decided to adopt the practical expedient of expensing sales commissions when incurred.
An impact of EUR 75 million was recorded as a retained earnings decrease in equity originating from the asset derecognition upon transition, and a net deferred tax benefit of EUR 17 million was recorded through retained earnings as a consequence. The net impact in equity was EUR 57 million.
In prior years, the company recognized revenue from intellectual property (IP) royalties, which is normally generated based on a percentage of sales or a fixed amount per product sold, on an accrual basis based on actual or reliably estimated sales made by the licensees. Revenue generated from an agreement with lump-sum consideration was recognized over time based on the contractual terms and substance of the relevant agreement with a licensee. In 2018, under IFRS 15, revenues from the licensing of intellectual property were recognized based on a right to access the intellectual property or a right to use the intellectual property. Under the first option, revenue is recognized over time while under the second option revenue is recognized at a point in time. As a result, this had an impact on revenues originating from the company’s IP royalties with lump-sum considerations that are right-to-use licenses since under IFRS 15 such revenues are recognized in the Consolidated statements of income at an earlier point in time rather than over time, as under the previous methodology.
As a result, an amount of EUR 25 million of deferred revenue was recorded as an increase in retained earnings upon transition. Additionally, IP royalties related to an associate had a similar accounting impact; hence an amount of EUR 7 million was recorded as an increase in retained earnings upon transition. A total deferred tax asset of EUR 7 million was released as a consequence. The net impact in equity was EUR 27 million.
The company has changed the presentation of certain amounts in the Consolidated balance sheets to reflect the terminology of IFRS 15. Contract liabilities are presented separately on the Consolidated balance sheets for its current and non-current portion and represent amounts posted in deferred revenue for which the goods or services have not yet been transferred to the customer and amounts have either been received or are due. They were part of Accrued liabilities and Other non-current liabilities as of December 31, 2017.