Sime Darby Berhad – Annual report – 30 June 2020
3 Significant Accounting Policies (extract)
u. Revenue recognition
Revenue from contracts with customers is recognised by reference to each distinct performance obligation in the contract with customer. Revenue from contracts with customers is measured at its transaction price, being the amount of consideration which the Group expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, net of goods and service tax, returns, rebates and discounts. Transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on the basis of the relative standalone selling prices of each distinct good or services promised in the contract. Depending on the substance of the contract, revenue is recognised when the performance obligation is satisfied, which may be at a point in time or over time.
Performance obligations by segment are as follows:
Industrial segment revenue consists of sale and installation of equipment, sale of parts, provision of after-sales services and engineering services.
- Sale and installation of equipment, parts and provision of after-sales maintenance
Revenue from sale of equipment and after-sales maintenance are recognised respectively in the period in which the customer accepts the delivery of the goods and services rendered.
Contracts that bundle the sale of equipment, after-sales maintenance, provision of parts credit and extended warranty are recognised as four distinct performance obligations for revenue recognition purposes. Parts credit represents prepaid amounts for equipment parts which customers will redeem in the future. Credit is given together with the sale of machine based on negotiated terms with the customer. Revenue from parts credit is recognised upon utilisation of credit for parts exchange.
Contracts that bundle the sale and installation of generator sets are recognised as a single performance obligation as the installation includes a significant integration service. Revenue is recognised progressively based on the percentage of completion determined by reference to the completion of the physical proportion of contract work to-date.
There is no significant financing component in the revenue arising from sale and installation of equipment, parts and provision of after-sales maintenance as almost all sales are made on the normal credit terms not exceeding 12 months.
- Extended warranty programme
The Group operates an extended warranty programme where customers are given additional 12-month warranty in addition to the standard warranty. Revenue for the extended warranty is recognised in the period in which the warranty services are rendered. No element of financing is deemed present as the sales are made on normal credit terms. Obligations to repair or replace faulty products under standard warranty terms is recognised as a provision.
- Construction of equipment
Contracts for construction of equipment comprise multiple deliverables which include a significant integration service and are therefore recognised as a single performance obligation. Revenue is recognised progressively based on the percentage of completion determined by reference to the completion of the physical proportion of contract work to-date.
- Sale and leaseback arrangements
Accounting policy applied from 1 July 2019
Sales of equipment arising from sale and leaseback arrangements are recognised when the Group transfers control of the equipment to the customer, being when the customer accepts delivery of the equipment. If it is clear that the sale and leaseback transaction is established at fair value, the Group recognises immediately any profit or loss relating to the rights transferred to buyer-lessor and ROU assets arising from the leaseback at the proportion of the previous carrying amount of the assets retained. If the sale price is below fair value, the Group recognises immediately any profit or loss and a prepayment of the lease payments. If the sale price is above fair value, the Group accounts it as additional financing by the buyer-lessor.
Accounting policy applied until 30 June 2019
Sales of equipment arising from sale and operating leaseback arrangements are recognised when the Group transfers control of the equipment to the customer, being when the customer accepts delivery of the equipment. If it is clear that the sale and operating leaseback transaction is established at fair value, the Group recognises any profit or loss immediately.
If the sale price is below fair value, the Group recognises immediately any profit or loss except when the loss is compensated for by future lease payments at below market price, in which case the Group defers and amortises the loss in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the sale price is above fair value, the Group defers the excess over fair value and amortises the excess over the period for which the asset is expected to be used.
- Engineering services
Engineering contracts involving engineering services comprise multiple deliverables which are highly integrated, and are therefore recognised as a single performance obligation. Revenue is recognised progressively based on the percentage of completion determined by reference to the completion of the physical proportion of contract work to-date.
The Group is the authorised distributor of vehicles and parts and also operates a network of dealerships selling vehicles and parts and offering after-sales services. Motors segment revenue consists of sales of vehicles and parts, after-sales services, assembly of vehicles and handling and commission income.
- Sale of vehicles and parts
Revenue from sale of vehicles and parts is recognised when the Group sells the vehicle to customers and control of the vehicle and parts has transferred, being when the vehicles and parts are delivered to the customer. The retail sale of parts normally occurs during performance of after-sales services. Therefore, revenue from sale of parts is reported with the performance of after-sales services.
The vehicles and parts are often sold with volume based discounts and incentives based on aggregate sales over an agreed period. Accumulated experience is used to estimate and provide for the discounts and incentives, using expected value or most likely methods depending on the type of discounts and incentives. Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur. A contract liability is recognised for the expected discounts and incentives payable to customers in relation to sales made.
Consistent with market practice, the Group collects deposits from customers for the sale of vehicles. A contract liability is recognised for the customer deposits as the Group has an obligation to transfer vehicle to the customer in respect of deposits received. Customer deposits would be recognised as revenue upon sale of the vehicle to the customer.
No element of financing is deemed present as the sales are made with a credit term of 30 to 60 days, which is consistent with market practice. The Group’s obligation to provide warranty for the vehicles and parts under the standard warranty terms is recognised as a provision (see Note 44).
- After-sales services
The Group provides after-sales services or routine vehicle maintenance services within and/or outside of the warranty period in relation to the vehicle brands that the Group sells. The performance of maintenance services is often accompanied with the sale of parts. Revenue from after-sales services is recognised over the period of performance of services to customers.
The sale of vehicle to the customer may be bundled together with extended warranties and/or free services. The extended warranty provides assurance to the customer that the vehicle parts comply with agreed-upon specifications beyond the general standard warranty period. The extended warranties and free services are separate performance obligations and the transaction price is allocated to the service obligations based on its relative standalone selling prices. The extended warranties and free services are deferred and recognised over the period covered by the extended warranties and when the free services are performed respectively.
There is no significant financing component in the sale of extended warranties and/or free services as the sales are made on normal credit terms not exceeding 12 months. Where consideration is collected from customers in advance of services being performed, a contract liability is recognised. The contract liability would be recognised as revenue when the related services are rendered.
- Assembly of vehicles
The Group manufactures and assembles light commercial and passenger vehicles, and are contract assemblers of motor vehicles. Revenue arising from the assembly of vehicles is either recognised upon completion of the assembly service or over the period when assembly services are rendered based on the contractual terms with the customers.
Revenue recognised upon completion of assembly service
Revenue is recognised for certain assembly customers when control of vehicles has transferred, being when the vehicles are delivered to the customer, the customer has full discretion over the channel and price to sell the vehicle and there is no unfulfilled obligation that could affect the customers’ acceptance of the vehicles. Delivery occurs when the vehicles have been accepted by the customers upon completion of the assembly service.
Revenue from these services is recognised based on the fixed price specified in the contract and the variable expenses recoverable from the customers, based on the aggregate service provided over an agreed period. Accumulated experience is used to estimate and provide for the variable expenses recoverable, using the expected value method, and revenue is only recognised to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur. There is no significant financing component in the revenue arising from assembly of vehicles as the sales are made on the normal credit terms not exceeding 12 months.
Revenue recognised over the assembly period
Revenue is recognised over the assembly period for certain assembly customers if the vehicles being assembled do not have any alternative use and when the Group is able to enforce payment for performance completed to date during the assembly period.
Revenue is recognised based on the actual costs incurred at the end of the reporting period plus a proportion of the expected profit margin with the customer. This method represents a faithful depiction of the service as the actual costs incurred represents the percentage of service rendered.
Estimates of revenues or expected profit margin are revised if circumstances change. Any resulting increases or decreases in estimated revenues are reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the circumstances that give rise to the revision become known by management. The Group’s obligation to provide warranty for the vehicles under the standard warranty terms is recognised as a provision.
- Handling and commission income
Revenue arising from rendering services, handling income and commission income is recognised when the relevant services are completed.
- Revenue from terminal handling and related services
Revenue from providing services is recognised in the period in which the services are rendered. The price of handling contracts is usually defined as fixed charge rate per tonne or container box, hence revenue is recognised based on the actual tonnage or number of container boxes handled multiplied by the contracted charge rates. Some handling contracts include multiple deliverables, such as the cargo storage services. Generally, the storage service is charged by fixed price per day and has no relationship with the handling charges. It is therefore accounted for as a separate performance obligation and revenue is recognised based on the unit price multiplied by days of storage.
iv. Other revenue
Revenue from other sources are recognised as follows:
(a) dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established; and
(b) rental income is generally recognised on a straight-line basis over the tenure of the lease.
m. Contract assets and liabilities
Contract asset is the right to consideration for goods or services transferred to the customers. In the case of engineering contracts, contract asset is the excess of cumulative revenue earned over the billings to-date. See note 3(n)(iii) on impairment of contract assets.
Contract liability is the obligation to transfer goods or services to customers for which the Group has received the consideration or has billed the customer. In the case of engineering contracts, contract liability is the excess of the billings to-date over the cumulative revenue earned. Contract liabilities include downpayments received from customers and other deferred income where the Group has billed or has collected the payment before the goods are delivered or services are provided to the customers.
n. Impairment (extract)
iii. Impairment of financial assets and contract assets
The Group recognises an allowance for expected credit loss (“ECL”) for all debt instruments not held at FVTPL. ECLs are based on the difference between the contractual cash flows due in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Group expects to receive, discounted at an approximation of the original effective interest rate.
The expected cash flows will include cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms.
While cash and cash equivalents are also subject to the impairment requirements of MFRS 9, the identified impairment loss is immaterial.
ECLs are measured based on a general 3-stage approach and a simplified approach.
General 3-stage approach for other receivables and amounts due from subsidiaries
ECLs are recognised in two stages. For credit exposures for which there has not been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, ECLs are provided for credit losses that result from default events that are possible within the next 12 months (a 12-month ECL).
For those credit exposures for which there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, a loss allowance is required for credit losses expected over the remaining life of the exposure, irrespective of the timing of the default (a lifetime ECL).
Simplified approach for trade receivables, contract assets and finance lease receivables
For trade receivables, contract assets and finance lease receivables, the Group applies a simplified approach in calculating ECLs. Therefore, the Group does not track changes in credit risk, but instead recognises a loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date.
Significant increase in credit risk
The Group considers the probability of default upon initial recognition of the asset and whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk on an ongoing basis throughout each reporting period. To assess whether there is a significant increase in credit risk, the Group compares the risk of a default occurring on the asset as at the reporting date with the risk of default as at the date of initial recognition.
The assessment considers available, reasonable and supportable forward-looking information such as:
- internal credit rating/assessment
- external credit rating (as far as available)
- actual or expected significant adverse changes in business, financial or economic conditions that are expected to cause a significant change to the debtor’s ability to meet its obligations
- actual or expected significant changes in the operating results of the debtor (where available)
- significant increases in credit risk on other financial instruments of the same debtor
- significant changes in the value of the collateral supporting the obligation or in the quality of third-party guarantees or credit enhancements
- significant changes in the expected performance and behaviour of the debtor, including changes in the payment status of debtor in the Group and changes in the operating results of the debtor
The Group considers a receivable as credit impaired when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated cash flow have occurred. These instances include adverse changes in the financial capability of the debtor and default or significant delay in payments. However, in certain cases, the Group may also consider a financial asset to be in default when internal or external information indicates that the Group is unlikely to receive the outstanding contractual amounts in full before taking into account any credit enhancements held by the Group. A financial asset is written off to profit or loss when there is no reasonable expectation of recovering the contractual cash flows.
Grouping of instruments for ECL measured on collective basis
To measure ECL, trade receivables and contract assets are grouped into categories. The categories are differentiated by the different business risks and are subject to different credit assessments.
Contract assets relate to unbilled work in progress and have substantially the same risk characteristics as the trade receivables for the same types of contracts. The Group considers the expected loss rates for trade receivables as a reasonable approximation of the loss rates for contract assets with similar risk characteristics.
Trade receivables, contract assets, other receivables and amounts due from subsidiaries which are in default or credit-impaired are assessed individually.
Notes to the Financial Statements
For the Financial Year Ended 30 June 2020
Amounts in RM million unless otherwise stated
Revenue comprise the following:
Analysis of the Group’s revenue from contracts with customers:
1 China consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
2 Australasia consists of Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
1 China consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
2 Australasia consists of Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
Revenue from contracts with customer of the Group includes RM1,871 million (2019: RM1,272 million) that was included in contract liabilities at the beginning of the reporting period.
The Group generates rental revenue mainly from leasing of equipment and motor vehicles. It also receives rental income from the leasing certain properties. The following table sets out the maturity analysis of lease payments of the Group, showing the undiscounted lease payments to be received after the reporting date and includes rental income recognised as other income (Note 10):
Included in revenue is RM243 million arising from subleasing of right-of-use assets.
32 Contract Assets and Liabilities – Group
a. Engineering contracts
The engineering contracts represent the timing differences in revenue recognition and the milestone billings. The milestone billings are structured and/or negotiated with customers to reflect the physical completion of the contracts.
b. Contract value yet to be recognised as revenue
Revenue expected to be recognised in the future relating to performance obligations that are unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) at the reporting date, are as follows:
c. Customer deposits
Customer deposits relate to deposits made by customers for the purchases of equipment and vehicles which were partially delivered or have yet to be delivered by the Group at the reporting date. The Group applies the practical expedient in MFRS 15 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” on not disclosing the aggregate amount of the revenue expected to be recognised in the future as the performance obligation is part of a contract that has an original expected duration of less than one year.
Customer deposits increased 16% mainly arising from higher orders placed by customers.