InterContinental Hotels Group PLC – Annual report – 31 December 2018
New accounting standards and presentational changes (extract)
IFRS 15 ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ (pages 109-110)
With effect from 1 January 2018, the Group has adopted IFRS 15 ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ which introduces a new five-step approach to measuring and recognising revenue from contracts with customers. Under IFRS 15, revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer.
The Group has elected to apply the full retrospective method in adopting IFRS 15 and has applied the following practical expedients:
• the transaction price at the date of contract completion was used for contracts that had variable consideration and were completed before 1 January 2018;
• for contracts modified before 1 January 2016, the aggregate effect of all modifications has been reflected when (i) identifying satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations, (ii) determining the transaction price and (iii) allocating the transaction price to the satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations.
Prior to adoption of IFRS 15, the Group’s revenue was primarily comprised of fee-based revenue from franchise and management contracts, and hotel revenue in owned, leased and managed lease properties. The recognition of these revenue streams is largely unchanged by IFRS 15 (see accounting policy on page 106).
The key changes resulting from the adoption of IFRS 15 are as follows:
Managed and franchised hotel cost reimbursements
Under IFRS 15, the provision of employees to managed hotels is not considered to be a service that is distinct from the general hotel management service. Reimbursements for the cost of IHG employees working in managed hotels are therefore shown as revenue with an equal matching cost, with no profit impact. Certain other costs relating to both managed and franchised hotels are also contractually reimbursable to IHG and where IHG is deemed to be acting as principal in the provision of the related services, the revenue and cost are shown on a gross basis under IFRS 15 in the lines ‘Reimbursement of costs’ and ‘Reimbursed costs’. Under previous accounting policies, no revenue or matching cost was recognised. This change increased 2017 revenue and expense by $1,103m, with no profit impact.
Initial application and re-licensing fees
Under previous accounting, application and re-licensing fees were recognised as revenue when billed as the monies received are not refundable and IHG has no further obligations to satisfy. Under IFRS 15, there is a requirement to consider whether the payment of these fees transfers a distinct good or service to the customer that is separate from the promise to provide franchise services. As this is not the case, IFRS 15 requires initial application and re-licensing fees to be recognised as services are provided, over the life of the related contract. The spreading of these fees results in an initial reduction to revenue and operating profit, and the recognition of deferred revenue on the statement of financial position, reflecting the profile of increased amounts received in recent years. This change reduced 2017 revenue from fee business by $14m and increased 2017 deferred revenue by $163m, comprising $24m current and $139m non-current. There was also a $40m decrease in deferred tax liabilities related to this adjustment.
Contract costs related to securing management and franchise contracts were previously charged to the income statement as incurred. Under IFRS 15, certain costs qualify to be capitalised as the cost of obtaining a contract and are amortised over the initial term of the related contract. This change increased 2017 operating profit by $5m and the capitalisation of contract costs on the statement of financial position at 31 December 2017 by $58m, comprising $7m current and $51m non-current. There was also a $15m increase in deferred tax liabilities related to this adjustment.
Amortisation of amounts paid to hotel owners to secure management contracts and franchise agreements (‘key money’)
Under previous accounting, key money payments were capitalised as intangible assets and amortised over the life of the related contracts. Under IFRS 15, these payments are treated as ‘consideration payable to a customer’ and therefore recorded as a contract asset and recognised as a deduction to revenue over the contract term. This change results in a reduction to revenue and depreciation and amortisation for the year ended 31 December 2017 of $17m, with no change to operating profit, and the reclassification of key money on the statement of financial position from intangible assets to contract assets at 31 December 2017 of $257m, of which $17m was classified as current and $240m was classified as non-current.
In the Group statement of cash flows, these contract acquisition costs are reclassified from investing activities to cash flow from operations.
Owned hotel disposals subject to a management contract
Under previous accounting, when hotels were sold and the Group retained management of the hotel, the consideration recognised included both the cash received and the fair value of the management contract which was capitalised as an intangible asset and subsequently amortised to the income statement. This accounting was governed by the ‘exchange of assets’ criteria included in IAS 16 ‘Property, Plant and Equipment’ and IAS 38 ‘Intangible Assets’. IFRS 15 specifically includes property sales in its scope and results in the sales consideration being recorded at the fair value of the encumbered hotel, which generally will be equivalent to the cash received. This change resulted in the derecognition of historic intangible asset balances at 31 December 2017 of $243m and a lower amortisation charge in the income statement for the year ended 31 December 2017 of $8m. This change also resulted in an increase in deferred tax assets and reduction in deferred tax liabilities of $19m and $32m respectively at 31 December 2017.
Other adjustments, which are immaterial, include re-assessments of IHG’s role as principal in other revenue transactions and the treatment of payments under performance guarantees as a reduction to the transaction price within management contracts.
System Fund adjustments
The Group operates a System Fund (the Fund) to collect and administer cash assessments from hotel owners for the specific purpose of use in marketing, the Guest Reservation Systems and hotel loyalty programme. The Fund also receives proceeds from the sale of loyalty points under third-party co-branding arrangements. The Fund is not managed to generate a profit or loss for IHG, but is managed for the benefit of hotels in the System with the objective of driving revenues for the hotels. Consequently, under previous accounting these revenues and expenses were not recorded in the Group income statement.
Under IFRS 15, an entity is regarded as a principal if it controls a service prior to transfer to the customer. As marketing and reservations expenses primarily comprise payroll and marketing expenses under contracts entered into by the Group, management has determined that the Group controls these services. Fund revenues and expenses are therefore recognised on a gross basis in the Group income statement. Assessment fees from hotel owners are generally levied as a percentage of hotel revenues and are recognised as those hotel revenues occur.
In respect of the loyalty programme (IHG Rewards Club), the Group has determined that the related performance obligation is not satisfied in full until the member has consumed the points at a participating hotel. Accordingly, revenue related to loyalty points earned by members or sold under co-branding arrangements is deferred in an amount that reflects the stand-alone selling price of the future benefit to the member. As materially all of the points will be consumed at IHG managed or franchised hotels owned by third parties, IHG is deemed to be acting as agent on redemption and therefore recognises the related revenue net of the cost of reimbursing the hotel that is providing the hotel stay. The deferred revenue balance under IFRS 15 (31 December 2017: $1,057m) is higher than the points redemption cost liability that was recognised under previous accounting (31 December 2017: $760m) resulting in an increase in the Group’s net liabilities.
Management has also determined that in addition to the performance obligation for the redemption of points, co-branding arrangements contain other performance obligations including marketing services and the right to access the loyalty programme. Revenue attributable to the stand-alone selling price of these additional services is recognised as the Group performs its obligations over the term of the co-branding arrangement.
Certain travel agency commission revenues within the Fund will be recognised on a net basis, where it has been determined that IHG acts as agent under IFRS 15.
Under previous accounting, any short-term timing surplus or deficit in the Fund was carried in the Group statement of financial position within working capital. Under IFRS 15, the in-year Fund surplus or deficit is recognised in the Group income statement. Both the previous accounting treatment and the change on applying IFRS 15, (and the equivalent US GAAP standard), are consistent with other companies in the hotel industry. The Fund surplus of $158m at 31 December 2017 was derecognised resulting in a reduction in the Group’s net liabilities.
IHG also records an interest charge on the accumulated balance of cash in advance of the consumption of IHG Rewards Club points. In 2017 these interest payments totalled $7m, and were recognised as interest income for the Fund and interest expense for IHG. The System Fund also benefits from the capitalisation of interest related to the development of the next-generation Guest Reservation System, which totalled $6m in 2017. As the Fund is now included on the Group income statement, these amounts are included in the reported net Group financial expenses.
The System Fund accounting changes result in an increase in recorded revenue and expenses for the year ended 31 December 2017 of $1,217m and $1,251m respectively. However, since the Group has an agreement with the IHG Owners Association that the Fund is not managed to a gain or loss for IHG, any in-year profit or loss resulting from Fund activity is excluded from the calculation of underlying operating profit and adjusted earnings per share as the agreement is to spend these funds for the benefit of hotels in the System.
Opening total equity at 1 January 2016 decreases from $319m to $(118)m (see page 100).
The impact of adopting IFRS 15 and other presentational changes on previously reported line items in the Group Financial Statements is set out on the following pages.
(Extract page 100)
Accounting policies (extract)
Significant accounting policies (extract)
Revenue recognition (pages 106-107)
Revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer.
Fee business revenue
Under franchise agreements, the Group’s performance obligation is to provide a licence to use IHG’s trademarks and other intellectual property. Franchise royalty fees are typically charged as a percentage of hotel gross rooms revenues and are treated as variable consideration, recognised as the underlying hotel revenues occur.
Under management agreements, the Group’s performance obligation is to provide hotel management services and a licence to use IHG’s trademarks and other intellectual property. Base and incentive management fees are typically charged. Base management fees are typically a percentage of total hotel revenues and incentive management fees are generally based on the hotel’s profitability or cash flows. Both are treated as variable consideration. Like franchise fees, base management fees are recognised as the underlying hotel revenues occur. Incentive management fees are recognised over time when it is considered highly probable that the related performance criteria will be met, provided there is no expectation of a subsequent reversal of the revenue.
Application and re-licensing fees are not considered to be distinct from the franchise performance obligation and are recognised over the life of the related contract.
Amounts paid to hotel owners to secure management contracts and franchise agreements (‘key money’) are treated as consideration payable to a customer. A contract asset is initially recorded which is recognised as a deduction to revenue over the initial term of the contract.
Revenue from owned and leased hotels
At its owned, leased and managed lease hotels, the Group’s performance obligation is to provide accommodation and other goods and services to guests. Revenue includes rooms revenue and food and beverage sales, which is recognised when the rooms are occupied and food and beverages are sold.
In a managed property, the Group acts as employer of the general manager and other employees at the hotel and is entitled to reimbursement of these costs. The performance obligation is satisfied over time as the employees perform their duties, consistent with when reimbursement is received. Reimbursements for these services are shown as revenue with an equal matching employee cost, with no profit impact. Certain other costs relating to both managed and franchised hotels are also contractually reimbursable to IHG and, where IHG is deemed to be acting as principal in the provision of the related services, the revenue and cost are shown on a gross basis.
System Fund revenues
The Group operates a System Fund (the Fund) to collect and administer cash assessments from hotel owners for the specific purpose of use in marketing, the Guest Reservation Systems and hotel loyalty programme. The Fund also receives proceeds from the sale of loyalty points under third-party co-branding arrangements. The Fund is not managed to generate a profit or loss for IHG, but is managed for the benefit of hotels in the IHG System with the objective of driving revenues for the hotels.
Under both franchise and management agreements, the Group is required to provide marketing and reservations services, as well as other centrally managed programmes. These services are provided by the Fund and are funded by assessment fees. Costs are incurred and allocated to the Fund in accordance with the principles agreed with the IHG Owners Association. The Group acts as principal in the provision of the services as the related expenses primarily comprise payroll and marketing expenses under contracts entered into by the Group. The assessment fees from hotel owners are generally levied as a percentage of hotel revenues and are recognised as those hotel revenues occur.
Certain travel agency commission revenues within the Fund are recognised on a net basis, where it has been determined that IHG is acting as agent.
In respect of the loyalty programme (IHG Rewards Club), the related performance obligation is to arrange for the provision of future benefits to members on consumption of previously earned reward points. Members have a choice of benefits: reward nights at an IHG hotel or other goods or services provided by third parties. Under its franchise and management contracts, IHG receives assessment fees based on total qualifying hotel revenue from IHG Rewards Club members’ hotel stays.
The Group’s performance obligation is not satisfied in full until the member has consumed the points at a participating hotel or selected a reward from a third-party. Accordingly, loyalty assessments are deferred in an amount that reflects the stand-alone selling price of the future benefit to the member. The amount of revenue ultimately recognised is impacted by a “breakage” estimate of the number of points that will never be consumed. On an annual basis, the Group engages an external actuary who uses statistical formulae to assist in formulating this estimate.
As materially all of the points will be either consumed at IHG managed or franchised hotels owned by third parties, or exchanged for awards provided by third parties, IHG is deemed to be acting as agent on consumption and therefore recognises the related revenue net of the cost of reimbursing the hotel or third-party that is providing the benefit.
Performance obligations under the Group’s co-branding arrangements comprise:
• arranging for the provision of future benefits to members who have earned points or free night certificates;
• marketing services; and
• providing the co-brand partner with the right to access the loyalty programme.
Fees from these agreements comprise fixed amounts normally payable at the beginning of the contract, and variable amounts paid on a monthly basis. Variable amounts are typically based on the number of points and free night certificates issued to members and the marketing services performed by the Group. Total fees are allocated to the performance obligations based on their estimated stand-alone selling prices. Revenue allocated to marketing and licensing obligations is recognised on a monthly basis as the obligation is satisfied. Revenue relating to points and free night certificates is recognised when the member has consumed the points or certificates at a participating hotel or has selected a reward from a third party, net of the cost of reimbursing the hotel or third-party that is providing the benefit.
Judgement is required in estimating the stand-alone selling prices which are based upon generally accepted valuation methodologies regarding the value of the licence provided, and the number of points and certificates expected to be issued. However the value of revenue recognised and the deferred revenue balance at the end of the year is not materially sensitive to changes in these assumptions.
Certain costs incurred to secure management and franchise contracts, typically developer commissions, are capitalised and amortised over the initial term of the related contract. These costs are presented as ‘Contract costs’ in the Group statement of financial position.
Contract assets and contract costs are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Critical accounting policies and the use of judgements, estimates and assumptions (extract)
Loyalty programme – the hotel loyalty programme, IHG Rewards Club, enables members to earn points, funded through hotel assessments, during each qualifying stay at an IHG branded hotel and consume points at a later date for free accommodation or other benefits. The Group recognises deferred revenue in an amount that reflects IHG’s unsatisfied performance obligations, valued at the stand-alone selling price of the future benefit to the member. The amount of revenue recognised and deferred is impacted by ‘breakage’. On an annual basis the Group engages an external actuary who uses statistical formulae to assist in the estimate of the number of points that will never be consumed ‘breakage’.
Following the introduction of a points expiration policy in 2015, breakage has become more judgemental due to there being limited historical data on the impact of such a change. Actuarial gains and losses would correspondingly adjust the amount of System Fund revenues recognised and deferred revenue in the Group statement of financial position.
At 31 December 2018, deferred revenue relating to the loyalty programme was $1,181m (2017: $1,057m). Based on the conditions existing at the balance sheet date, a one percentage point decrease in the breakage estimate relating to outstanding points would increase this liability by approximately $14m.
A description of the Group’s contracts with customers and its performance obligations under those contracts is contained on pages 106-107 and 109-110.
Disaggregation of revenue
The following table presents Group revenue disaggregated by type of revenue stream and by reportable segment:
The following tables present information about trade receivables, contract assets, and deferred revenue:
A trade receivable is recorded when the Group has issued an invoice and has an unconditional right to receive payment. In respect of franchise fees, base and incentive management fees, Central revenue and revenues from owned, leased and managed lease hotels, the invoice is typically issued as the related performance obligations are satisfied, as described on page 106.
Contract assets are recorded in respect of key money payments made to customers, normally at the beginning of the contract term, and payments under performance guarantees. These payments are recognised in the Group income statement as a deduction to revenue over the contract term and, in the Group statement of cash flows, key money payments are described as ‘contract acquisition costs’.
Deferred revenue is recognised when payment is received before the related performance obligation is satisfied. The main categories of deferred revenue relate to the Loyalty programme, co-branding agreements, and franchise application and re-licensing fees.
The table on the previous page does not include amounts which were received and recognised as revenue in the year. Amounts recognised as revenue were included in deferred revenue at the beginning of the year.
Loyalty programme revenues, shown gross in the table on the previous page, are presented net of the corresponding redemption cost in the Group income statement.
Other deferred revenue includes guest deposits received by owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
Transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations
The Group has applied the practical expedient in IFRS 15 not to disclose the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied as at the end of the reporting period for all amounts where the Group has a right to consideration in an amount that corresponds directly with the value to the customer of the Group’s performance completed to date (including franchise and management fees).
Amounts received and not yet recognised related to performance obligations that were unsatisfied at 31 December 2018 are as follows:
Movements in contract costs, typically developer commissions, are as follows:
32. System Fund
System Fund revenues comprise: